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University Degree: Social Psychology

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  1. Free essay

    Investigation of the Effect of Bystander Behaviour on Helping Behaviour in a Non-Emergency Situation

    wondered why people were unwilling to offer assistance in emergencies when they were quite happy to help in non-emergencies. They suggested a five-step model explaining what a bystander must do in order to help. Stage 1. Recognise that an event is occurring. Stage 2. Interpret the event as an emergency. Stage 3. Decide that he or she has a personal responsibility to help. Stage 4. Consider what form of help he or she can give. Stage 5. Execute the helping response. Helping behaviour is action that is intended to assist or benefit another person. This study is most concerned with Latane and Darley's Stage 3.

    • Word count: 2396
  2. A Discussion of the Foremost Factors influencing Efficacy of Punishment and its Success in Animal, Children and Criminal Studies.

    However, some studies successful in animals have been further developed into human subjects to test a more precise efficacy factor, such that conducted by Aronfreed (1968) in children and by Sherman (1993) in criminals. Several parameters need to be considered for punishment to be successfully applied to produce maximal efficacy. This essay will explore the factors of history, conditioned stimulus, schedule, magnitude, immediacy, and generalization, as well as the side effects of punishment in animal and human studies. Furthermore, studies in criminals will be compared as a separate entity to further conclude in whether punishment is a valid option.

    • Word count: 2897
  3. Skinner's behaviorism and Bandura's cognitive social learning of personality

    John and Janice (2001) define that "observation learning involves the learning of new behavior. When an observer sees a model do a behavior that the observer has never done, the observer may learn how to do the behavior merely by watching." For an example, we queued up for the bus in Hong Kong as we observe other were queued up for the bus. People can learn a great deal activity by observing other. The operant conditioning focus on the frequency of behavior change by reinforcement or punishment, but the observational learning focus on subject act the new behavior by observing other.

    • Word count: 2071
  4. The person centred approach

    For instance from a young age children aim to satisfy their parents/carers. However the actualising tendency has some similarity to the Freudian concept of libido. Rogers uses the term 'actulising tendency' to describe this human attitude towards development. The actulising tendency is responsible for every part of achievement including the serious effort an individual makes to try and accomplish there goal PC views of Psychological Development In contrast to the psychoanalytic view which suggests that human beings are driven by antisocial impulses, Rogers had a more positive outlook on humanity. Rogers believed that each person had the desire to grow, to develop and to reach their full potential (Rogers, 1996).

    • Word count: 1439
  5. This study will establish if first impressions of specific personality traits extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to experience have consensus between two strangers using a thin slice approach.

    Participants were also given an intelligence test to complete. Judges were then shown the videotapes of the participant some with audio and some without and were asked to provide ratings on each individuals personality and intelligence. The results replicate other findings (Albright, Kenny, & Malloy 1988, Borkenau & Liebler 1992) suggesting that stranger agreement is quite accurate in rating others individual personalities and intelligence. Carney, Colvin and Hall (2007) also examined how accurate first impressions were using a thin slice approach (5 seconds to 5 minutes)

    • Word count: 2563
  6. Describe and compare the social comparison and evolutionary perspectives on the functuality of gossip.

    Dunbar (2004) stated that because group size grew it was essential for some form of communication to evolve as this would allow people to keep track of what was happening in their group, which now generally stands at approximately 150 people and to keep track of each person's status and to keep allies in the group would be rather difficult without communication due to time constraints previously because of the lack of language social groups were very limited in what they could achieve as they could only see what was going on around them rather than hear of the possible

    • Word count: 1533
  7. How do people explain their own and other peoples behaviour?

    as people tend to construct theories about themselves. People believe there is a reason behind their behaviour and that it is controllable. Therefore people try to understand other people's behaviour to discover their motives and arrive at a reasonable cause. In order to establish such causes, people need to form a clear view of the world and gain control over their environment. In this sense, Heider assumed that everyone is rational, which may not necessarily be the case. One of the core reasons for attribution is the reaction to the cause of people's behaviour.

    • Word count: 1103
  8. Is there really such thing as Stockholm syndrome? The term Stockholm syndrome can be seen as a psychological shift when a captor portrays acts of kindness to their hostage that the hostage deems hospitable

    The fact that the acts of kindness occur encourage sympathy and the longer the period of time this continues the greater the bond becomes (this can sometimes even lead to a s****l interest). Psychiatrist Frank Ochberg was the first professional to define 'Stockholm syndrome': he stated that it is "a primitive gratitude for the gift of life," not unlike that felt by an infant.[2]. It could be argued that he is expressing how like a child the individual is vulnerable thus very dependant.

    • Word count: 4179
  9. Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning and the psychology of s*x and gender

    In researching language and the development of subsequent theories, language itself is used as a medium to investigate language. This methodological reflexivity is the source of conflict between social and cognitive perspectives on language when trying to determine to what extent, if any, the necessity of responding in language predetermines what is said. Social psychologists, more specifically discourse psychologists (i.e. Parker, 1992, as cited in: Cooper & Kay, 2007, p. 105), claims that in using language individuals do so in a social and historic context, with an audience and for a purpose.

    • Word count: 1768
  10. Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning as well as the psychology of s*x and gender.

    The third factor to explore issues in psychology is the use of studies. The social perspective uses the hermeneutic method to investigate the objects of interest. The strength of this method is that it is based on the analysis of everyday conversations within the social world, outside laboratories or formal settings of study (Cooper and Kaye, 2007a). This is in line with the claim that humans process information better when it is presented in the same way that is encountered in naturalistic environments (Buchanan, Anand, Joffe and Thomas, 2007).

    • Word count: 1952
  11. Assessing Competency to Take the Oath

    competent witnesses, as those providing evidence in court must understand the difference between truth and falsehood and appreciate the obligation to tell the truth. Therefore, if, after strict examination, someone suffering from a learning difficulty appears to possess adequate knowledge regarding the nature and consequences of an oath, they are deemed able to provide a testimony. However, understanding and taking the oath does not necessarily correlate with sincerity, thus enhancing the need to assess one's ability to appreciate their obligation to tell the truth.

    • Word count: 1682
  12. A summary and evaluation of Burger, J.M. 2009 Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today? This essay will offer a critical analysis of the study Replicating Milgram carried out by Jerry M. Burger looking principally at Burgers aims, meth

    He advertised for participants in local newspapers, online listing and in other community areas. Interested individuals went through a series of screening procedures in order to eliminate those who may experience a negative reaction to the experiment. (Burger, 2009) Approximately 30% of applicants were excluded during the initial screening.(Burger, 2009) The final sample consisted of seventy participants, they ranged between the ages of twenty and eighty-one, whereas Milgram limited his sample to those aged fifty or younger. The sample consisted of a more ethnically diverse group of participants all from varying ethnic backgrounds and educational levels.

    • Word count: 1088
  13. Compare and contrast two approaches to the study of prejudice

    Individual differences as a cause of prejudice is concerned with why some people are more prejudice than others, and whether it is because of a personality trait that causes these attitudes (Crisp & Turner, 2007). An authoritarian personality was on concept that was suggested by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) in the wake of the holocaust (cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2004). They believed that only those with a personality defect could be prejudice, these people were not only prejudice toward one particular social group but all minority groups.

    • Word count: 1381
  14. According to attribution theorists the laypersons judgments of others are biased

    Considering those three stages we can explain attributional bias which affects the way people determine what or who was responsible for an event or action, for instance people involved in an action see things from a different point of view from the observers who were not involved. This is known as the actor - observer effect , the observer understands the situation from a different point of view, generally is the tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes but the other people's behavior to internal causes.

    • Word count: 1942
  15. Critically evaluate how psychological theories, concepts and evaluations have been employed forensic area of applied psychology covered in the module

    s****l offenders provide an example to support this. The treatment of such offenders has become a priority in recent years as evidence shows a dramatic 50% increase in the decade 1980-90 of these types of crime (Fisher and Beech, 1999). It is a serious social problem and a long term issue and cannot be tackled by incarceration alone. Freud and his psychodynamic theories deemed s*x offenders untreatable, but developments have resulted in cognitive and behavioural treatment programmes that are proven to reduce recidivism (Hanson et al, 2002).

    • Word count: 2112
  16. Critically Evaluate Three Theoretical Perspectives in Social Psychology

    Objects that are colourful, noisy and moving stand out to individuals whereas quiet, stationary and bland objects are harder to notice and constitute the background. This principle, along with spontaneously grouping objects, is important in determining people's perception of physical objects and social situations. Research from Fiske and Taylor (1991) on social cognitions focuses on how individuals put together information about people, social situations and groups to make inferences about them. An example of how social psychologists use cognitive theories in real life situations is the use of cognitive priming to explain media influences on anti social behaviour.

    • Word count: 1575
  17. Multiple Sclerosis: Functional History (Department of Psychology - University of Liverpool)

    It will use case studies, personal narratives and other relevant literature to evaluate the implications of such symptoms. Second, it will briefly consider the psychological history behind the disability with reference to the Disability Rights Movement in America. Third, the paper will relate the original limitations and symptoms discussed to psychological concerns and affects, coping strategies employed etc. Lastly, the symptoms of MS will be considered from a broader social perspective. Societal attitudes towards the disability and collective symptom management will be included to consolidate the arguments put forward.

    • Word count: 5692
  18. Worplace Bullying

    This increased anonymity and decreased reliance on others has reduced the feeling to treat strangers and acquaintances with courtesy and respect (Estes & w**g, 2008). Linking Incivility and Workplace Bullying Defining Incivility Workplace incivility is defined as "low intensity deviant behavior with ambiguous intent, in violation of workplace norms for mutual respect. Uncivil behaviors are characteristically rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others" (Estes & w**g, 2008). Bullying, on the other hand, is defined as a form of hostile, negative social interaction that is repetitive, patterned and ongoing, yet unwanted and unsolicited.

    • Word count: 3165
  19. Social perception, impression formation and the utilisation of schemas applied in the context of Hong Kongs new found slimming culture.

    This can be applied to explain the sudden emergence of a "slimming culture" in Hong Kong. With advertisements scattered throughout the city, they arrogate the use of various slimming products and services and seem to be gaining support and recognition as more companies start to emerge. Mainly targeting the female population, due to factors such as modern globalisation, what used to be typically a Western pattern of body dissatisfaction, is now becoming more and more prevalent in the Hong Kong population. (Lee, 2001) This factor is central to the success and spread of this new found slimming culture.

    • Word count: 2075
  20. Outline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses?

    ESP aims to research the "science of social behaviour" (DVD 1, DD307, 2007) by using quantitative methods of investigation such as the laboratory experiment. Although not confined to the laboratory, this setting facilitates achieving two of the main features within the discipline: control and measurement. It would be impractical to attempt to record physiological responses though observational methods. Experiments are used as a tool in which researchers aim to isolate variables and show that by manipulating them they can cause a particular outcomes (DVD 1, DD307, 2007).

    • Word count: 1732
  21. Free essay

    In their attempts to transcend the individual-society dualism in understandings of the self, how successful have the social psychoanalytic and phenomenological perspectives been?

    The first set of binary terms that seem to oppose one another regard the question of whether the locus of self lies in unconscious motivations or conscious awareness. Phenomenologist's make no attempt to merge these aspects together predominantly due to their ontology who view individuals as self-conscious, embodied active meaning makers (Holloway, 2007). However social psychoanalytic perspectives, although largely weighted on the unconscious side, do nevertheless give a place to unconsciousness; at the surface of the self. Holloway and Jefferson's (2005, cited in Holloway, 2007)

    • Word count: 2148
  22. Discuss the function of sleep (25 marks)

    Meddis (1979) believes that sleep keeps an animal safe from predators. The time an animal sleeps coincides with times when the animal is unable to feed or defend itself effectively; which is usually during the night. Another researcher proposed the Hibernation theory, Webb (1974). He suggests that sleep has evolved because it conserves the animal's energy as behaviour activity stops and body temperature decreases during sleep. As a result animals that conserve energy are more likely to survive than animals that do not.

    • Word count: 1759
  23. What is punishment, and does it really work?

    Studies have shown the numerous effects that punishment has on people. This essay will explore the two different types of punishment; aversive and response cost (Passer & Smith) and their uses in different contexts such as punishment in schools, in society and in the home. It will also analysis the effectiveness of punishment as researched in studies. In doing this, the question must be explored of whether or not reinforcement is the best way for increasing a response, or if punishment has the same effect on behaviour (Vogel-Sprott, 1969). What is punishment?

    • Word count: 2300
  24. Punishment and its effectiveness

    This is that punishment is used in order to cease a particular behaviour that is unwanted. This essay will explore what punishment actually is and how it is used in contexts such as everyday society, in the home, and in school. The effectiveness of punishment will also be covered and analysed in terms of whether it really is the best method in ceasing undesirable behaviours. What is punishment? Punishment has been defined as "an environmental change contingent on behaviour that produces a decrease in responding over time" (Michael, 1993, as cited in Lerman & Vorndram, 2002)

    • Word count: 2136
  25. self esteem and personality factors

    Various researchers have proposed the idea of self esteem being a crucial factor in the progression of personality processes. In theory low self esteem results in low self confidence and hence decreased activity in social situations, which results in an individual becoming more introverted. This suggests that individuals beliefs regarding themselves influences their behaviour and actions in various situations with a pronounced effect on personality style (as cited in Robins et al. (2001). It seems plausible; therefore, that personality will vary according to self esteem beliefs. Numerous theories and research have supported this notion establishing a link between the FFM and self esteem with research from Robins et al.

    • Word count: 3801

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