Goals of Women's Liberation Movement The Women´s Liberation Movement (WLM) exploded into existence in the late 1960´s in America after a period of relative inactivity in feminism during the 1950´s and quickly spread to Europe, soon holding annual demonstrations in London. It was a 'movement´, not an organisation and consisted of numerous women´s groups, all campaigning for different feminist goals. This analysis aims to discuss and debate whether 'equal access to the same goals as men´, a liberal feminist statement, adequately embodies the goals of the WLM during the 1960´s/70´s. It will examine the British WLM, the 7 demands they made in the 1970´s and how these demands relate to this statement. Various groups within the American WLM will also be examined with reference to how their demands compare with the statement. The analysis attempts to show how WLM demands, in the U.S. and Britain, are a reflection of the goals of a multifaceted movement and are inadequately represented by the statement. The three main trends within the WLM were socialist feminism, liberal feminism and radical feminism; each saw women´s problems in a different light and stressed different solutions. The American WLM´s origins in the civil rights movement meant that, in the early days, there was a leaning towards the pursuit of equality. The British WLM´s origins were more influenced by
Why and How is Music Controlled and Regulated? Music as a universal cultural past time has proved to be an indispensable medium used by musicians to convey popular attitudes prevalent in modern society and those of old. The definition of Music is largely subjective depending entirely upon an individual's personal classification. The pressing issue we have in hand here is what are the significant factors that would lead to measures which have been created in an attempt to regulate and control controversial artistic expression within music, and more importantly the need for such measures. The crux of the discussion is freedom of expression and religion in today's society; it is clear that in regulating and protecting society the law is inextricably linked to morality and religious beliefs as these are the very fabrics of culture. The issue taken up for discussion in this essay gives rise to the battle between 'free speech' and 'the status of religious freedom'. Although there are numerous excuses for the policing of music in some form or another, this particular piece will most closely examine the issues related to religion, such as religious politics, blasphemy, back masking, objection on religious grounds and so forth. The essay intends to explore fundamental reasons as to why religious representatives protest for control and regulation, whether they have been successful
The Yorkville district located in Toronto was a village where young musical and artistic talent could gather and share their love of music during the 1960's.
The Yorkville district located in Toronto was a village where young musical and artistic talent could gather and share their love of music during the 1960's. It was a place that launched the careers of many Canadian artists such as Gordon Lightfoot, Joni Mitchell, Ian Tyson, and Neil Young, just to name a few. The area began its legacy with a couple of coffeehouse's that offered live entertainment named the Half Beat and the 71. The entertainment was usually irregular with different styles playing on any given night, such as a flamenco guitarist one week and a folk-rock singing duo the next. As time went on, many other coffeehouses and clubs sprouted up along Avenue Road, Cumberland St. and Yorkville Ave., and at its peak there were over forty clubs and coffeehouses in the area.1 A "scene" was created which attracted musicians from all over Canada and the World but most importantly, solidified Yorkville as a starting point for the most talented and creative musicians in Canada. Yorkville was the foundation in a progression toward popularizing Canadian music in Canada during the sixties. Once musicians became popular in the Yorkville scene, they usually chose to migrate into the United States in search of fame and fortune, which the Canadian Music Industry could rarely provide for them. Yorkville also served as grounds for a youthful social movement which thrived through the
To what extent can The Rite's innovations be boiled down to rhythm alone? The Rite of Spring, first performed to much controversy in 1913, is a ballet unlike any other of its time, before its time or possibly even afterwards. It has almost nothing in common with the idealisms of Tchaikovsky. In terms of subject matter, it is vastly different even to Stravinsky's earlier ballets. It is this difference, a plotline which is harsh and based not on fantasy or folk tales, but on supposed ancient tribal history, which separates it from its contemporaries and predecessors and is reflected so obviously in the music. The most prominent musical difference between The Rite and other contemporary works is the popular claim that Stravinsky has minimized the influence of harmony, melody and overall tonality at the expense of rhythm and meter; in other words, that rhythm is the driving force of the work. From the perspective of the casual listener, this manifests itself as the phenomenon of the percussive nature of instruments that are normally melodious. Stravinsky himself acknowledged the importance of the subject matter to the resultant music from the very start of the composition process. The idea of Le Sacre de printemps came to me while I was still composing The Firebird. I had dreamed a scene of pagan ritual in which a chosen sacrificial virgin danced herself to death. This vision
WOMEN AND SISTERS: THE ANTISLAVERY FEMINISTS IN AMERICAN CULTURE By Jean Fagan Yellin Book Review by: Women and Sisters: The Antislavery Feminists in American Culture examines the lives of the antislavery feminists in the antebellum period of American history. Through careful research and thoughtful insight, Jean Yellin, distinguished Professor of English Emerita at Pace University, New York City, New York, focuses her attention on the leading figures in reform, abolitionism and feminism. Familiar reformers and images are given new meaning in this original study, which includes the images of slavery in sculpture, cartoons, prints, coins and medallions in classical antiquity and the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The book combines methodology from history, art and literature. The most common image studied depicts a suppliant slave woman kneeling or sitting in chains, being liberated by a white female reformer. The motto "Am I not a woman and a Sister?"(4) heads the picture with an appropriate scriptural message, "Remember them that are in bonds as bound with them," (4)showing the religious and paternalistic concerns of the reformers. This image of the slave woman is then compared to the white woman, who was considered an "Angel in the House"(5) when she remained silent and invisible in public, but played a more active role at home. Part one discusses the
Oceanic art is diverse in style and technique. Artefacts were not considered art by their creators, but were an integral part of the religious and social ceremony of everyday island life. Art objects include ancestor figures, canoe-prow ornaments, ceremonial shields, masks, stone carvings, decorated human skulls, pottery, and stools. Fertility is a recurrent theme, along with occasional references to headhunting and ritual cannibalism. Most Oceanic arts are considered primitive in that until recently the indigenous cultures possessed no metal, and cutting tools were of stone or shell. The vocabulary of contemporary Aboriginal painting is derived from these ritual designs and practices. The waves of shimmering dots, the maze patterns, the lyrical lines, the passages of sensual, light dappled color that activate contemporary Aboriginal paintings are all meant to deliberately disorient or dazzle the senses and provoke a sense of the power and mystery inherent in The Dreaming and the resonant ancestral power of Aboriginal Australia's sacred places. Traditional symbols are an essential part of much contemporary Aboriginal art. Aboriginal peoples have long artistic traditions within which they use conventional designs and symbols. These designs when applied to any surface, whether it is on the body of a person taking part in a ceremony or on a shield, have the power to transform
What are the chief characteristics that identify Angkor Wat as a temple? Angkor Wat, located in Cambodia, was built in the early 12th Century by King Suryavarman II, and was made the capital city of the Khmer Empire under his reign. Originally, Angkor Wat was built as a Hindu temple, dedicated to Suryavarman II's chosen personal deity, Vishnu (Rawson, 1995: 96), though in the 15th Century, the temple city was converted to a Buddhist place of worship, evidence of which can still be seen today, despite the temple's Hindu appearance. The temple is the largest religious monument in the entire world (Roveda, 1997: 100). Angkor Wat is regarded by many as the crowning work of Khmer architecture, and is a stunning amalgamation of several features from earlier styles (Rawson, 1995: 81). Said by many to be Suryavarman II's mortuary temple, Angkor Wat was under construction the entire time he ruled, after coming into power in 1113AD (Rawson, 1995: 80). The religious history of the Khmer Empire is an interesting one, as the religion of Brahminism originally brought to Cambodia by the Khmers ended up fusing with the existing religious ideas of the natives upon arrival. Buddhism had been in Cambodia since the first or second Centuries, and other belief systems such as ancestor worship and animal totems were popular amongst the natives (Fujioka, 1972: 16). Buddhism was growing as a
How successfully do you think Handel's 'The King Shall Rejoice' fits the occasion for which it was written?
How successfully do you think Handel's 'The King Shall Rejoice' fits the occasion for which it was written? 'The King Shall Rejoice' was just one of Handel's four Coronation Anthems, which were written in 1727 for the accession of George II. The King requested Handel, after the original composer appointed to write the piece of music, William Croft died. The first movement 'The King Shall Rejoice', opens in the key of D major, with a long introductory ritornello, this exercises the strength of the orchestra. The key of D major allowed Handel to exploit the availability of trumpets, which were generally played in this key at the time, and the use of the brass was necessary to create the sense of magnificence and ceremony by a state occasion such as this, as was the use of the timpani. Strategic uses of cadences are particularly common throughout, providing perfect order and structure to the piece. Repetition of phrases is also a device, which gives the piece excellent order. This movement is full of primary chords I IV and V, and was Handel's typical chordal structure. It was very simple but effective. The note values are linked to the actual words, for example the word 'strength' is used with a long note value, showing the definition of the word. The trills added decoration, making gestures of royal significance. Tension is built up by the time we reach the opening of
Timbre as a form-building property in the music of Kaija Saariaho Candidate number: 22025865 MUS335 Individual Research Topic MMus Contemporary Music Studies Abstract This essay outlines the evolution of Kaija Saariaho's working methods from the 1980s to the present, with particular reference to her own research on timbre and form. Relatively recent music research began to address the need for new formal possibilities to suit the requirements of avant-garde composition. The main focus of this essay is on timbre as a form-building element in Saariaho's music, and her association with psychoacoustics, which examines the ways in which timbral form can be apprehended. The essay commences with a summary of the historical background to Saariaho's interest in timbre and its relation to "spectral" music. After investigating her work in this field, the essay then examines Saariaho's violin concerto Graal Théâtre (1994) in more detail, to show how the composer's working methods and range of expression have expanded, with a subtle shift of emphasis from timbral concerns towards more linear, melody-led compositions. Throughout the essay, the author locates Saariaho's music in its historical context and circumstances, and looks at her music's relationship to its surroundings, canonic origins and influences. The essay concludes with some critical thoughts on the nature of timbre as
Drama 12CAT- Assignment #2: Research Exercise Claudia Buttazzoni The Playbox Theatre Company was founded in 1976, by Carillo Grantner, Graeme Blundell and Garrie Hutchinson. Known in 1976 as Hoopla!, Playbox's original home was the Grant Street Theatre. In 1977, Hoopla! not only found a new home at The Playbox Theatre, Exhibition St, Melbourne, but also a new name: The Playbox Theatre Company. It was to call The Playbox Theatre its home and main venue, for the next 7 years, until a fire burnt the venue down, forcing Playbox to perform in various different venues. Among these venues were such theatres as: St Martin's Theatre, The Studio Arts Centre and various other venues around Melbourne. It would be two years before Playbox found, what is to this day, its permanent place of residence. In 1986, John Elliot, head of Elders IXL, which owned Carlton and United Breweries, donated the late 19th Century Barrett Brothers & Burston Malthouse in Sturt st, South Melbourne, to Playbox. Over the next four years, what is now known as The CUB Malthouse, was constructed and Playbox had it's first production there in March 1990, but the theatre wasn't officially opened until August of that year. Playbox developed a mission statement, in 1990, when it took up residence at The CUB Malthouse that positioned the company in terms of : "Aiming to secure the long-term future of Playbox