All plays are written in order to be performed and in this sense, The School for Scandal is one of the best examples in order to show it.
All plays are written in order to be performed and in this sense, The School for Scandal is one of the best examples in order to show it. The play was performed for the first time in 1777 at Drury Lane Theatre, where Sheridan worked as a manager, after Garrick´s retirement in 1776, together with Thomas King, the actor that played the role of Sir Peter Teazle in the first performance of The School for Scandal. The Drury Lane was one of the most important theatres of that time. This engraving shows the theatre after it was remodeled and redecorated in 1775, a few years before The School for Scandal was performed. The Drury Lane suffered a series of changes and remodelations to fit into the new king of theatre of the late Eighteenth century. All these advantages conditioned the text, so it is important to study them in detail. Although at that time the apron was disappearing, establishing more distance with the audience, due to Wren´s proscenium, the Drury Lane had an apron or forestage projected about twelve feet into the auditorium. It was retained because of the advantages in greter audiability and closer intimacy with the public. It also kept the ´aside´ effective. This print belongs to the screen scene (act IV, scene iii) and it shows the screen itself on the curtain-line, Joseph near the proscenium door and Sir Peter and Charles on the curtain-line, so it is easy to
"...widespread acceptance is that sport is of public value and it is this value that underpins the argument for legal protection." Discuss
"...widespread acceptance is that sport is of public value and it is this value that underpins the argument for legal protection."1 Sport's role in society can be traced back to the ancient times. Games played by the early Greeks were grounded in mythology and religious beliefs. Held in conjunction with festivals, they involved prayer, sacrifices and ritual feasts. As popularity at Olympia grew, they adopted further social, political and economic importance. Romans developed this, packaging sport in military training and appealing to the masses.2 Today's highly 'commercialised', 'trans-national' and enlarged Europe remains extremely sporting. Arguably, sport confers a sense of 'unity', transcending social loyalties, perhaps, the very lynchpin of a hegemonic system, while technology allows the media -particularly through television broadcasting 'sacrosanct' events3 - to remain central in reproducing this 'unity'. Consequently, free-to-air broadcasting4 and sport have enjoyed "a unique symbiosis".5 While globalisation and market liberalisation expand potential consumer markets, growing competition for broadcasting rights raises a further issue.6 Is the mere public's interest in watching sport a sufficient reason to require availability on television free of charge and legally protected?7 If so, does that right flow, as Lord Hoffman suggested, from 'citizenship'?8 Conversely,
In Tamanaha's chapter "The Contemporary Relevance of Legal Positivism"1, the author addresses the relevance of current legal positivism by considering the changes and criticisms that it has undergone. He intends to reinforce the importance of positivism by reconsidering the relationship between law and morality. He goes a step further to highlight that perhaps, "natural lawyers ought to become allies of legal positivists in scrutinizing all natural law or natural law-sounding claims made by legal systems". Despite the obvious that Tamanaha classifies as being part of the legal positivist approach, his present view of the legal positivist theory, sharply raises doubt as to what extent he can be said and is willing to be considered as one. He acknowledges, "something is amiss with the theory", that it is suffering from a malaise. As to the origin of this, he recognises the separation thesis, Hart's unchanged concept and the inner division within the positivists as growing awareness outlines, that law is closely linked to morality. How then, can Tamanaha consider himself a legal positivist if he is questioning and ultimately doubting the ultimate theory of legal positivism? In an attempt to bring back to life legal positivism, he diverts from the negative image, described as "almost entirely pointless"2, to illustrate its contemporary benefits. His endeavour to achieve this
Are there any natural rights? "A man may choose whether he will become a civil servant or a schoolmaster, a conservative or a socialist, but he cannot choose whether he will be a man or a dog."
Are there any natural rights? "A man may choose whether he will become a civil servant or a schoolmaster, a conservative or a socialist, but he cannot choose whether he will be a man or a dog."1 Natural rights are perceived as the inherent and original rights of human nature, which equally belong to all men without exception, and which are possessed solely because of their human condition. They are held to stem from a concept of natural law, whatever definition may be attributed to the term. The theory of natural law and natural rights of man is, however, an obscure one. It seems a strange law, which is unwritten, has never been enacted, may even be observed without penalty, and imposes peculiar rights which are entitled prior to all specific claims within an organised society. It may be just an example of 'social mythology', but such an idea is still intriguing. For, to disregard it completely is to deny all its evident psychological, political and legal effects, and to adopt it fully is to be blind to man's own imperfections. "That men are entitled to make certain claims by virtue simply of their common humanity has been equally passionately defended and vehemently denied."2 H. L. A. Hart once asserted that "if there are any moral rights at all, it follows that there is at least one natural right, the equal right of all men to be free."3 And the proposition that all men
Discuss the legal protection given to databases under the Maltese Copyright Act 2000.
Discuss the legal protection given to databases under the Maltese Copyright Act 2000. A computer database is a collection of information stored on computer media. The range of things, which may be included in a database, is vast and enormous; "the information in a database may be a list of clients and their addresses or a full text of various documents or a set of co-ordinates relating to three-dimensional building structure. The information contained in the database may, itself, be confidential and protected by the law of breach of confidence. When one looks at a computer database and considers the work it represents, for example, a printed; list of names and addresses, a printed set of documents or a drawing of a building. Those works are protected by copyright as literary or artistic works and it does not matter if the work is never produced on paper and only ever exists on computer storage media1." "The appropriate form of copyright depends on the status of the database, for example, data representing sounds may be stored in a computer file which, when accessed by an appropriate computer program will be used to determine the actual sounds produced. A database containing musical information will be considered to be a musical work or could even be classified as a sound recording. It does not matter whether the information is recorded on magnetic media, compact disc, or any
Is it possible to offer a definition of Law? What problems affect the attempt to supply such a definition?
Jurisprudence Summer Essay Is it possible to offer a definition of Law? What problems affect the attempt to supply such a definition? The attempt to provide a definition of law has troubled philosophers and legal academics for centuries, and still there is no explanation of law which comes close to being a universally accepted definition. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that this essay will not endeavour to offer a bold, novel concept about what 'law' is. Merely, I will attempt to explain some of the common features of what is generally recognised as law (and thus identifying some distinction between law and other social sciences), hopefully without narrowing the scope far enough to fall into contentious territory. This will be done, with reference to various prominent jurisprudential authors, by discussing a few of the key issues of what makes law - morality, creation and enforcement, and the requirements for a successful legal system. During this discussion I will consider the problems in trying to provide a definitive description of what law actually is. After this a short conclusion will be drawn. A good starting point would be to consider some famous concepts of law which have already been propounded. John Austin recognised law to be a series of orders backed by threats. He considered the state to be similar to a gunman pointing at a victim ordering them to do
How would you sensibly restrict a right to freedom of expression?
How would you sensibly restrict a right to freedom of expression? Freedom of expression is often considered to be one of the most basic canons of democracy. As a fundamental right it is included in documents such as the Bill of Rights in the United States, the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, and the European Convention on Human Rights, meaning that restrictions on freedom of expression are left in the hands of the government. However, I feel that this is an unsettling state of affairs as the judgement of the state is based upon the needs and demographics of the majority and cannot adjust to the individual. Freedom of speech must allow one to speak their opinions freely, whilst simultaneously refraining from offending other members of society making it an ambiguous concept, needing rules and restrictions. But can we trust the government to censor this right? The tyranny of the majority is as good a reason as any to prevent the government from being involved in censorship, as the majority of the population may be, for example, anti-homosexuality, or anti-immigrant. This could be bad news for the suppressed gay immigrants of the population. In a healthy democracy it is vital that smaller groups are heard, and there is no way to guarantee these voices if the government can restrict free speech. As social philosopher John Stuart Mill argued in On
Public Law I - Constitutional Law.
Non-Assessed Course Work Public Law I - Constitutional Law Question Assume the following facts. The Labour Government is committed to the creation of regional assemblies - a policy that is strongly opposed by the Conservative Party. A Lancashire Parliament is created by the enactment of The Lancashire Parliament Act 1999. Three years later, following a General Election, the Conservative Party is returned to power with a small majority of seats in the House of Commons over the combined opposition parties. The new Prime Minister wishes to secure the repeal of the Lancashire Parliament Act 1999. It appears that, in order to establish the Lancashire Parliament on a firm footing, the Labour Government had introduced a provision in the 1999 Act-section 13- in order to forestall the possibility of its repeal. Advise the Conservative Prime Minister (who wishes to secure the immediate repeal of the Lancashire Parliament Act) on the basis that section 13 is set out in the following alternative terms: ) "This Act of Parliament may never be repealed" 2) "This Act of Parliament may not be repealed for a period for at least ten years from the date of its entry into force." 3) "This Act of Parliament may be repealed only if the repealing measure gains a two-thirds majority on its third reading in the House of Commons" 4) "This Act of Parliament may only be repealed if, in addition to
Has The Human Rights Act Made A Significant Difference?
Has The Human Rights Act Made A Significant Difference? In analysing whether the Human Rights Act (1998) (HRA) has made a significant difference, it is necessary to firstly examine the European Convention of Human Rights, also known as the ECHR. The Human Rights Act (1998) itself will also need to be addressed, along with its impact upon the law. This essay will review the Act in terms of its strengths and weaknesses and will explain the ways in which it is valuable to UK law and also how it has altered it. The European Convention of Human Rights and fundamental freedoms was adopted by the Council of Europe in 1950, and was once described as "the most important instrument of international law". Its creation derived from the ideal that it would act as prevention from the horrific events which took place during the Second World War, in other words it was to act as a defence to avoid any repercussions of totalitarianism etc. Once finalised in 1950, the United Kingdom were among the first to sign and the convention came into effect in 1953, however, it would be a long time until this would be incorporated into UK law. The Convention posed a number of objectives by way of articles, among these (in order) were the right to life, prohibition of torture, prohibition of slavery and forced labour, right to liberty and security, right to a fair trial, no punishment without law, right
'Abortion is an issue only concerned with rights and duties'. Discuss
Title: Ethics Ethics 'Abortion is an issue only concerned with rights and duties'. Discuss Abortion is currently defined as "an untimely delivery voluntarily occurred with an intent to destroy the foetus". Abortion was at first made illegal in 1803 but cultural changes led to the passing of the Abortion Act in 1967 when abortion became legal up to 28 weeks of the pregnancy. This has since been changed to 24 weeks. At present various studies point to an annual abortion rate of between forty and fifty million, this increases every year. The meaning of abortion is quite clear from its definition. It is one of the most controversial ethical issues with arguments both for and against the subject from many different groups within the community. Where rights and duties are concerned there are many different approaches from these groups as to what rights the mother has, the rights of the unborn child and the duties the mother has to herself, her partner, her religion and her unborn baby. However in my opinion abortion is not only concerned with rights and duties. There are other issues such as emotional factors surrounding the mother, different situations for each individual person and circumstances that must be taken into consideration when abortion is an issue. I will discuss the rights and duties involved and also the effect of emotional elements and how different