The Promotion of Children's Rights in Zambia.

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This study seeks to height the history of the child’s right and how Zambia has positioned herself in the promotion of the rights of the child in accordance with UNCRC resolution.

All children have a right to survive, to develop to the full, and to enjoy a safe, healthy and happy childhood. They have a right to healthy physical and emotional. Development, and to live, learn and be full and respected members of the society. As infants, young children or teenagers, in Zambia and throughout the world, all children share these rights which in turn will shape their future, the future of their country, and indeed the global future.

Yet in poor countries, children face significant hurdles in securing even the most basic standards of survival and development. Compromised by poverty and ill- healthy even before birth, many children suffer the successive blows of malnutrition, inadequate schooling, poor housing and exposure to danger and harm. Such deprivation has a strong tendency to reproduce itself, as the disadvantages faced by chronically poor girls and boys reduce their opportunities and capacities as adults to provide a better start for their own children.

While the various cycle of poverty, vulnerability and deprivation can be described in general terms, however, it is important to remember that in any context, it is caused and entrenched by specific and identifiable factors. In order to improve the lives of children, children have been included, either directly or indirectly, in most of the nearly. 80 treaties and decrees on human rights.


According to the convection on the right of the child (1989) defines a child as any person aged 18 years and below. The 2004 orphans and vulnerable children in Zambia situation analysis (OVCSA), the national child policy and the medium – term strategic plan (MTP) 2005 to 2007 on OVC, indicate that the majority of Zambia children suffer from numerous socio – economic problems that negatively affects their growth and development. the children mostly suffer from poverty , hunger, lack of access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation , lack of decent shelter, destitution , exposure to numerous epidemics and illiteracy .(FNDP, 2006 - 2010)


In the early 20th century, moves began to promote the idea of children’s rights as distinct from those of t adults and as requiring explicit recognition. The polish educationalist Janusz Korczak wrote of the rights of children in his book How to love a child (warsaw,1919); a later book was entitled. The Child’s Rights to Respect (warsaw,1919). In 1917, following the Russian Revolution, the Moscow Branch of the organization Proletkult produced a declaration of the children’s Rights.

However, the first effective attempt to promote children’s rights was the Declaration of the Rights of the child, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb in 1923 and adopted by the league of Nations in 1924. This was accepted by the united Nations on it’s formation and updated in 1959, and replaced with a more extensive UN convention on the Rights of the child in 1989. ( rights  movement). However, from the formation of the United Nations in the 1940s and extending to present day, the children’s Rights movement has become global in focus. While the situation of children in the United states has become grave, children around the world have increasingly become engaged in illegal, forced child labor, genital mutilation, military service, and sex trafficking. Several international organizations have rallied to the assistance of children. They include save the children, free the children, and the children’s Defense fund (Mally, 1990).

According to Englantyne Jebb (1923) he believes that the rights of a child should be especially protested and enforced, thus drafting the stripulations for child’s rights.

Jebb’s initial 1923 document consisted of the following criteria:

  • The child must be given the means requiste for it’s normal development, both material and spiritually.
  • The child that is hungry must be fed, the child that is sick must be nursed, the child that is backward must be helped, the delinquent child must be reclaimed, and the orphan and the waif must be sheltered and succored.
  • The child must be the first to receive relief in times of distress.
  • The child must be put in a position to earn a livelihood, and must be protected against every form of exploitation.
  • The child must be brought up in the consciousness that it’s talents must be devoted to the service of it’s fellow men (Hawes, 1991).
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According to the Child Rights Information Network (1983) the group of 1,600 non- governmental organizations from around the world which advocate for the implementation of the convention on the Rights of the child. Organization report on their countries’ progress towards implementation, as do governments that have ratified the convention.

Every 5 years reporting to the United Nations committee on the Rights of the child is required for government (CSO, 2000).


  1. Scope of Instrumental Obligations

According to commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2008) ...

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