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How humans have polluted the Earth

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

This project is aimed to deliver the facts about how humans have polluted the Earth in every way possible, what these pollutants are, how they came about, what they do, and what we can do to stop them spreading further. This project has been divided into five parts, each focusing on different aspects of human contamination. The first segment is about how humans have reduced the total amount of land for animals and plants. The second element is about how humans pollute their world, i.e. land sea and air. The final pieces are about three of the main problems caused by human pollution: The greenhouse effect Ozone layer problem Crisis with eutrophication The last page of this project is a bibliography, which contains all the names of the sources of information that I have found. The whole project is designed to give a neutral view on the subjects, but my personal comments have also been added to give an enhanced insight into the topics. The assignment contains a few illustrations and diagrams of the key points. I trust that you will enjoy reading this work, and hope that you learn about the injustices going on, on our planet. Never has so much been owed to the world by so few, that so many have to suffer for, until the end of time. As previously stated, this segment will deal with the reasons behind, and how, humans have reduced the amount of land for plants and animals. ...read more.

Middle

Below is a diagram of how nuclear waste is treated. This section is about the greenhouse effect. I will be commenting on the following things: What it is. How it is created. What it does. Why we need to lessen it. How to reduce it. The greenhouse effect is sometimes confused with global warming; they are almost the same thing, except the greenhouse effect is done naturally, whereas global is created by humans. The greenhouse effect is the natural way in which heat is retained on Earth. Global warming is caused by excess retention due to human involvement. The greenhouse effect refers to the way in which gases in the Earth's atmosphere warm the Earth like the glass roof of a greenhouse-by letting sunlight in but keeping the reflected heat energy trapped inside. These naturally occurring gases, which are carbon dioxide and water vapour, are called greenhouse gases. A diagram to show this has been drawn below: The greenhouse effect keeps the temperature of the Earth to a suitable level so that life can exist. Without this effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be about -15�, which is not hot enough to sustain life. One of the main gases that make the greenhouse effect possible, carbon dioxide, is being severely increased, leading to global warming. Also, excesses of methane and nitrous oxide cause it. They are being increased because we are using too many fossil fuels, and we are also the main cause of forest fires, which are occurring too commonly. ...read more.

Conclusion

When it is on the surface of the earth, or the troposphere however, it becomes a pox3erful pollutant. This section is not focusing on how ozone is a pollutant; it should be focusing on how ozone is being polluted in the stratosphere by humans. I shall now continue with this. The reason why so much ozone in the atmosphere has been depleted so easily is because of chlorofluorocarbons that come from the exhaust of cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight. This is bad because they rise into the stratosphere, and react with UV light; it then displaces a chlorine atom. A chemical equation to show this is below. CFCl3 + UV Light ==> CFCl2 + Cl Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + O ==> Cl + O2 The then free chlorine reacts with ozone to form chlorine monoxide and an O2 molecule. The ultra violet radiation breaks this down into just single O atoms, which reacts with the chlorine monoxide to form oxygen (O2) and chlorine. Chlorine is now free to do the same to other ozone molecules. This means it is a catalyst because it is never changed chemically. A chemical equation to show this process is shown below. Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + O ==> Cl + O2 And again ... Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + O ==> Cl + O2 And again... for thousands of times. Now I will be discussing the existence of holes in the ozone layer due to weather patterns changing. ...read more.

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