• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

River Studies

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Geography MYP Coursework River Studies Rio Lizandro is a river located in Portugal, near the district of Lisbon, and has an approximate length of 30km. In this coursework, we have to test the hypothesis related to the characteristics of the Rio Lizandro to discover if it is justified. In order to do so, we will have to draw, measure and calculate the data which we are give on four different sites along the river, and thus conclude with an analysis on the relationship between our results and the given hypothesis. Task 2: State the aim of the study. You need to explain the hypothesis and perhaps suggest what you expect to be the outcome referring to Bradshaw's Model River. The aim of this study is to use the given data on the four different sites along the Rio Lizandro to see how its river variables change and compare it to Bradshaw's model. By doing this, we will be able to test the hypothesis and conclude on whether or not it is correct. The Bradshaw Model is a geographical model which illustrates how a river's characteristics differ from the mouth to source, or lower course to upper course, of a river. According to Bradshaw's model, the hypothesis is that "Stream characteristics (i.e. cross-sectional area, discharge, velocity, efficiency, and gradient) ...read more.

Middle

Gradient: 1�. Dist. from Left bank (m) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 Depth (m) 0.0 0.32 0.20 0.16 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.38 0.25 0.20 0.13 0.05 0.23 0.25 0.21 0.12 0.07 0.02 0.0 Velocity measured over 10 metres in the centre of the river flow: Attempt Time in seconds 1st 10 2nd 12 3rd 14 Average time = 10+12+14 = 12 3 Average velocity: 10 / 12 = 0.83m/sec. - Wetted Perimeter: 9.5m - Cross sectional area: Width x Average depth Average depth: 0+0.32+0.20+0.16+0.16+0.22+0.27+0.38+0.25+0.20+0.13+0.05+0.23+0.25+0.21+0.12+0.07+0.02+0 19 = 0.17m 9 x 0.17 = 1.53m2 - Discharge: Cross sectional area x Velocity 1.53 x 0.83= 1.2852m 3/ sec - Hydraulic Radius: Cross sectional area Wetted Perimeter 1.53 / 9.5 = 0.161 = 0.16m Site 4: Foz de Lizandro Gradient: 0�. Distance from left bank (m) 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 11.76 Depth (m) 0.00 0.15 0.57 1.35 1.51 1.60 1.51 1.60 1.67 1.00 0.56 0.41 0.00 Time taken for float to travel 10 metres: Left bank 11 secs 10 secs 14 secs Middle 10 secs 10 secs 12 secs Right bank 12 secs 15 secs 13 secs Average time = 35/3 + 32/3 + 40/3 = 11.7 + 10.7 + 13.3 = 35.7 = 11.9 3 3 3 Average velocity: 10 / 11.9 = 0.84m ...read more.

Conclusion

It is for this reason that the halving pattern cannot be taken into consideration if we were predicting the gradient for other sites in other rivers. Nevertheless, the decrease in gradient along the river supports Bradshaw's theory. Essentially, the wetted perimeter means the perimeter of a cross sectional area that is covered with water. Although it is not included in the hypothesis, it however does not show to have any pattern at all. At first, the wetted perimeter shows a decreasing pattern along sites 1 to 2, as it decreases from 16.7 to 16.4 cm. But from sites 2 to 4, the wetted perimeter increases from 16.4cm to 950cm to 1425cm. It may be that the data for site 1 is incorrect and is supposed to be lower, in order to show an increasing pattern for the wetted perimeter from source to mouth. So, overall as stated in the hypothesis, the stream characteristics do change along the course of the river. It is also correct that they are all interconnected. As you can see from the results, the hypothesis stated in the beginning of the coursework is fully correct and the characteristics of Rio Lizandro meet accordingly with what Bradshaw's table shows, as seen in the results and calculations. Hence, stream characteristics all change along the course of the river and they are all interconnected in one way or another. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Geography Coursework: Epping Forest

    This graph compares the average width and depth and was used because it shows clearly whether the depth and width are connected. As the depth increases the width also increases on this graph. The deepest channel is the river channel at Site 3, the shallowest is at Site 1.

  2. How does the Efficiency and Cross-Sectional Area of a River Change Down Stream?

    8 18.9 5.1 96.39 9 17.1 5.7 97.47 10 23.3 5.8 135.14 11 17.2 8.9 153.08 12 25.7 10.1 259.57 Fig. 6. Cross-Sectional Area table In figure 6, I have shown the cross-sectional area of the river at all twelve sites.

  1. 'To what extent does the River Lyn conform to the Bradshaw model of River ...

    Water was pushing against the rule, made it difficult to keep it vertical in the water, which could make the reading higher. 11/11/02 6, A, B, C Water + channel width Metre rules To see if it conforms to the Bradshaw model Measured with a measuring rule, or with string, which was then calculated.

  2. My hypotheses are:The character of the course of the River Bollin will change along ...

    When the water reaches a meander, the flow is faster on the outside of the bend, where it is slower, despoliation occurs, this forms beaches on the inside of the bend.

  1. This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes ...

    If this too short it will be awkward after a half way through we have to measure the width this is because to make it as a average. DEPTH: To find the depth we have make 5 equally distance points of equal distance.

  2. Investigate change in river characteristics down stream.

    Such as the measuring of width with a tape measure is a good idea as I will be able to take the measurement from the bank more easily than if I was using meter rules and joining them together, which would have caused errors in the reading of results.

  1. The river Gwaun: Investigating how the course of the river changes from the source ...

    at there was bed load at each site which affected the depth and there were many large rocks (piled up) in Site 4 as a flood/riverbed defence so we probably slipped down the side of the rocks. The average at Site 2 was higher because: * Of man management in

  2. Geography investigation - The River Skirfare located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire ...

    Lots of results would make up for this fault though. These two methods complement each other and will provide very useful data for analysis in trying to contend with the hypothesis. SECTION 4 Data Presentation; In this section I shall display all the data that was collected from the fieldwork at the locations Halton Gill and Arncliffe.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work