• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analysing the effects of stress and anxiety on sports performers Stress is basically defined as any influence, which disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body. It is

Extracts from this document...


Analysing the effects of stress and anxiety on sports performers Stress is basically defined as any influence, which disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body. It is the non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it. It is a response to a specific situation. Stress is either positive or negative. Positive stress is known as arousal, it is an offset of adrenaline in order to prepare for stress. It ensures that we are alert and concentrating. Aggression is when stress is negative and can lead to violence. It can also lead to the muscles tightening and becoming anxious this will have a decrease in performance. Factors that could stress during a performance are: pressure, crowd, prize, big game, type of event, unfamiliar environment, biased referring etc. Stress will often cause a change in behaviour, which can either be physical or psychological. Physical effects could be things such as a release of hormones, tense muscles, and sweating, increasing heart rate, increasing breathing, nausea, increase in pulse rate, temperature. Psychological effects could be being paranoid, getting aggressive, becoming unstable, irrational, over aroused although it could be motivational and improve your alertness. ...read more.


Stress, arousal and anxiety can have many effects upon a performer both positive and negative. Arousal can be defined as being a general mixture of both the physiological and psychological levels of activity that a performer experiences. Highly energised states can be caused by an individual or team competing in an important competition. Arousal is not seen as good or bad, it appears to represent the level of energy or effort that a learner/performer develops and applies to a sporting situation. Arousal is a state of readiness to perform that helps motivate individuals. Whereas anxiety is a negative reaction of a performer to stress, this often leading to over arousal (worry and nervousness). It is when a player becomes over aroused that their performance can start to deteriorate. For example in football when players such as Roy Keane or Duncan Ferguson become over aroused more often than not they will end up being sent off for aggressive and violent behaviour. Anxiety is linked to the negative emotions a person experiences as a result of the cognitive and physiological effects of arousal and also stress. ...read more.


After a muscle is tensed the relaxation effect is deepened which also has an effect upon involuntary muscles. This can be practised using a series of taped instruction or by the psychologist giving out the instruction. It usually starts at the hands by making a clenched fist gesture then relaxing ad would carry on through the arms and so on. Meditation is frequently confused with various forms of concentration. The purpose of concentration exercises is to focus full undivided attention on a specific aspect of functioning of our mind and/or the body in order to accomplish a certain goal or develop a certain skill. Exercises such as yoga, tai-chi, breathing exercises, visualization are all forms of concentration. In contrast, meditation is an exercise, aiming to prevent thoughts in a natural way, by deeply relaxing the physical body and then trying to keep the mind completely "blank" with no thoughts whatsoever. This state may be maintained for a few seconds or a few hours, depending on your skill. Meditation could be used to relax before a game if you were nervous. It could be used to reach the optimum if a player was excessively nervous before a game. ?? ?? ?? ?? Richard Aldridge ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe arousal, anxiety and stress including their causes. Explain effects on performance. ...

    4 star(s)

    Throughout her career she had won races by going to the front and trying to burn the opposition away, but in the Olympics race this didn't happen, her opponents stayed with and then started to go in front. She then began to lose confidence in herself and gave up around

  2. Training Programme - I want to build up my stamina because I need it ...

    Safety Aspects Injuries decrease the amount of time you can spend on training or doing activities, lower your fitness, downgrade your performance, and can lead to long-term health problems. Although without the same potential of injury that can be received in such sports as soccer, rugby or boxing, sports like athletics nevertheless does present situations from which injury can result.

  1. Critically analyse your own performance in your chosen sport using suitable notational methods. Include ...

    of fifty, especially with some off our opponents not being the best. Unfortunately I didn't manage to achieve my aim although I did remain not out on forty three and forty two were I felt if there had been more time I would have made fifty's.

  2. Personal Exercise Programme (PEP).

    I will progress to 17.5 kg next session. EZ bar reverse forearm curls: As above. Cool down: I ran for four minutes, decreasing the intensity to a walk. I then carried out the appropriate stretches for all the muscles I had worked during the session.

  1. Free essay

    A2 PE Factors Affecting Performance - Anxiety / Arousal

    This can be directly applied to this theory when referring to over-arousal. Drive Theory (Clark Hull 1943) which is explained in appendix 1. This can be seen in the professional world where the shot putter would usually be doing fast, jerky movements, pumping his arms and shouting or jeering; this

  2. analysis of 2 sports : Badminton and Gaelic Football

    In badminton speed is required in order to maintain a rally by reaching the shuttle and hitting a return. As a result my performer is slower to the shuttle, reducing the number of returns and therefore losing points. Body Size Body size refers to the athlete's height and weight.

  1. To what extent will arousal influence preformance in netball.

    It basically says that the Inverted U Hypothesis shows that every athlete has an optimum level of arousal that needs to be reached in order to achieve peak performance. If you exceed the optimal arousal level then your performance will decline in proportion to how much over aroused you are.

  2. Psychology in Sport: Anxiety, Stress and Sports Performance

    Trait anxiety is identified in people who appear to be anxious throughout all activity. Often this type of anxiety is genetically inherited and reflects the existence of stable individual differences. An example of trait anxiety would be a cross-country runner, who never really appears to be affected by anxiety in any situation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work