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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Joint Classifications

    The final of the three joint classifications is the movable joints, also known as the synovial joints. The synovial joints make up most of the joints in the body and, they usually give the highest range of movement. The reason the movable joints are referred to as synovial joints is; the fact that in these types of joint, there is a sack which slowly secretes the synovial fluid to reduce friction between the two layers of articular/hyaline cartilage at either end of epiphysis in the joint. The synovial joints have six sub-classifications. The first of these sub-classifications is the ball and socket joint; this joint provides the highest range of movement and is found at the shoulders and hips.

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  2. Bones and Joints in the Human Body.

    The major bones of the human body are very important and have major functions E.g. The vertebrae column allows us to bend, stretch and rotate our body without it we could not move in these ways. Below is a labeled diagram of the skeletal system. Picture reference - www.google.images.co.uk Body in Action There are different types of joints in the human body, joints are the place where two place meet. The joints hold your bones together and allow your rigid skeleton to move. Ball and socket joints a very mobile joint in the body, like your hip and shoulder joints, this joint allows you to swing your arms and legs in many different positions.

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  3. Sport Science - Sports Injuries Task 3

    * Rest the injury initially, and then re-introduce movement so you don't lose too much muscle strength. * Ice should be applied to your ankle to reduce swelling and bruising. You should not apply ice directly to your skin as it can give you an "ice burn" - place a cloth between the ice and skin. * Compress your ankle by bandaging it to support the injury and help decrease swelling. * Elevate your ankle by resting your foot above the level of your heart and keep it supported. Example #1 Ankle Sprain: * An ankle sprain is a generic term for over exertion of the muscles, tendons ligaments and nerves surrounding the ankle.

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  4. Physiology - muscles and joints. Different types and their use in sports.

    Agonist and antagonist both have to work together to product the desired action. The role of the muscles is to stabilise the organs so that the agonist can produce the most effective contraction. To raise the upper arm, the anterior and poster parts of the deltoid muscle balance each other while the fibres in the middle of the muscle contracts to pull the arm upwards. The teres major muscle, which connects the scapula, relaxes to allow the movement. Sometimes stabilizing muscle also play a role in this coordinated muscle action. Joint types There are 9 different types of joints in the body.

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  5. Hydration and Sports Performance. Conditions caused by lack of fluids

    An example of muscle cramps occurring during exercise is when footballers go into extra time during competitive games. Many footballers go experience cramp during extra time of a match because they are exceeding the amount of time they usually play for and are loosing more fluids than what the body is used to. To over come cramp they need to stretch out their muscles and hydrate themselves to replace the lost fluids and salts. Heat exhaustion Heat exhaustion is where the body loses its ability to cool down efficiently.

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  6. Energy intake and expenditure. Nutrition needs of a fooballer and long distance runner.

    There should be at least 5 servings of fruit & vegetables each day - necessary for preventing illness, building muscles and repairing injury. Pre - Before a match or training a footballer should be eating food that can be broken down easily so energy requirement can be met. Extra carbohydrates and fluids should be taken on 24 hours prior to the match. The last meal should be eaten 3-4 hours before the match and this should be a meal such as pasta with a tomato-based sauce with chicken.

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  7. Describe and explain the importance of energy balance in relation to a sports performer

    An important part of maintaining energy balance is the amount of physical activity that you do. People, who are physically active, burn more calories than people who are not as physically active. A sports person would want to be in balance when they are at their normal training day and not looking so massive gains. This is mainly referring to any sports person who wants to stay at their optimum weight. When they would want to make massive gains in their training they would want to be at a negative energy balance so they are giving out more calories than taking in.

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  8. Btec sport, skeletal system

    5. Storage of minerals Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, build-up will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply. The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts: Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton, making up 80 of your 206 bones, encompasses all your upper body bones. It is subdivided into three groups: the skull, the vertebral-sound column, and the bony thorax-sound.

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  9. Diet plan for an athlete. In my athletes diet plan I have included a high amount of carbohydrates this is because a sufficient amount of energy

    Red kidney beans, chick peas and fat-free dressing. Serve with salad and 1 wholemeal bread roll. French bread with 2 slices ham, salad, Plus 1 small yoghurt. Grilled chicken and salad sandwich Mussels, boiled potatoes and mixed vegetables Tuna pasta Jacket potato with baked beans and cheese Grilled salmon and salad tortilla wrap Snack Packet of mixed nuts Isotonic drink Fruit loaf Protein bar Banana smoothie Apple and a pear Packet of mixed nuts Protein bar Tea Tortilla wraps with mayonnaise and grilled chicken 1 lean loin lamb chop served with 1 jacket potato, vegetables Spaghetti Bolognese Roast chicken with

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  10. The energy system Our bodies need a supply of energy to enable it to carry out the functions to live. These functions can be digesting food to live and avoid starving to death, performing muscular contractions to do everyday life such as eating or exerci

    The food types that contain energy in form of kilocalories (kcals) are , carbohydrates 1 gram gives 4 kcals, protein 1g gives 4 kcals and fat that provides the body with the highest kcals, at around 1g gives 9 kcals.Adenosine triphosphate is made of 1 adenosine molecule attached to 3 phosphate molecules. Thee molecules are bound together by high energy bonds. The energy bonds contain the energy and therefore to free the energy we need to break down the bonds attaching the molecules. In order to break one of the bonds we need an enzyme called ATPase.When the ATP has being broken down we are then left with a second compound called adenosine diphosphate or ADP.Resulting with a loose phosphate in the process.

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  11. Sport injuries Understand how common sport injuries can be prevented by the correct identification of risk factors

    Another risk is pushy coaches making Participants pushed, and even made to play through the pain barrier an example of this is Andre Agassi used to have a tennis racket taped to his hand when he was just 2 years old. Using good technique in sport is beneficial because it promotes high performance and reduces the risk of injury. Players need to develop the skills necessary to perform the movements of their sport correctly. If players learn and use incorrect techniques they may at first perform well but they are placing themselves at increased risk of both acute and chronic injury that will reduce their ability to perform.

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  12. Hydration and Sports Performance Signs and symptoms Water is the most important nutrient, particularly for athletes this is because water is 85% of the body

    Heat exhaustion Heat exhaustion is where the body loses its ability to cool down efficiently. Normally, the body cools itself by sweating. But if you are exposed to high temperatures for a long time and don't replace the fluids you lose, the body systems that regulate temperature become overwhelmed. The athlete's skin will feel moist and clammy they will have a fast, weak pulse and shallow breathing, they may look pale and feel weak and dizzy. Hyponatraemia Hyponatraemia is a result of an overhydrating in the body.

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  13. Gender, Exercise and Sporting Performance

    Males tend to have greater muscle mass and lower fat mass compared with females. A high percentage of body fat is not always a hindrance in sport. As females have a greater percentage of fat than males they are more buoyant (muscle mass weighs much more than body fat) so they use up less energy than males staying afloat. Therefore using the same amount of energy females will be able to swim faster than males. This together with the increased insulation from the cold makes females more suited to open-water swimming such as swimming the channel.

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  14. The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

    The openings leading into these organs can also be seen on each side. The Facial Bones (Reference of picture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gray_190_-_The_skull_from_the_front.png) The facial skeleton consists of fourteen irregular bones, which are all (except the lower jawbone) firmly attached to the cranium by means of sutures. They include the nasal bones, the two jawbones and the cheek bones. The lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone part of the cheek bone, just in front of the ear. This allows for the necessary movement of the lower jaw for the chewing of food. Both upper and lower jaws have alveolar pockets into which teeth fit.

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  15. Biological Chemicals

    Carbohydrates are used to create glucose which can be used right away or stored to use later. Carbohydrates are broken into two categories, simple and complex. Sugars fall into the simple category, while starches and fibres are complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrate molecules range from monosaccharide (single unit such as glucose) to disaccharides (two units such as sucrose) to polysaccharides (long chains, including starches, glycogen, fibres) Monosaccharide Monosaccharide is the simplest form of Carbohydrate. It contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C6H12O6). Each molecule has twice as much hydrogen as carbon.

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  16. Body in Motion

    The speed increase 0.5 kmh each minute and the beginning pace is at 8.5 kmh. The pace remains the same for an entire level and does not vary between shuttles within that level. The subject has two chances to miss the beep and after this they must withdraw from the testing and listen to what level and shuttle they obtained. If a runner reaches the line or cone prior to a beep they must wait here for the beep to sound before moving off.

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  17. Carbohydrates adds calories (energy), they provide valuable vitamins, minerals and fibre, and they ensure that muscle recovery is swift and effective following training.

    There are 3 types of carbohydrate; Polysaccharides take time to be broken down and give a steady release of energy, these are complex and the largest of the carbohydrates They are made from long chains of single sugar units called monosaccharides.

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  18. The Skeletal System

    These are: - Long: longer than they are wide. (e.g. the femur and the humerous) - Short: as wide as they are long (e.g. the carpals and tarsals) - Flat: flat and protect another structure (e.g scapula and ribs) - Irregular: no common characteristics (e.g the vertebrae) - Sesamoid: contained within a tendon (e.g. the patella and in the sole of the foot) Within these types of bones, there are also 2 types of boney material; these are called cancellous bone and compact bone. Cancellous bone is mainly for red cell production. It is soft and spongy with low density and a high surface area. Compact bone is strong and stops bone crumpling under pressure.

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  19. The Muscular System

    spinae Extension of vertebrae Gymnastics Teres major Medial rotation of shoulder Rowing Trapezius Upper: adducts and rotates scapula, laterally flexes neck and head. Middle: adducts and elevates scapula. Lower: rotates scapula Holding head up in rugby scrum Latissimus dorsi Adduction of humerus Butterfly stroke in swimming Obliques Flex and rotate upper body Throwing Gluteus maximus Extension of hip and laterally rotates femur Pulling leg back before kicking a ball These are the origin and insertions of all the major muscles: Muscle Origin Insertion Biceps Scapula Radius Triceps Humerus/scapula Ulna Deltoids Clavicle/scapula Humerus Pectoralis major Clavicle/sternum Humerus Rectus femoris Femur/illium Patella

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  20. Different Types of Mental Training

    Consider when you have thought about what that athlete has done during their performance, (e.g. how they kick a ball) tried to see your self doing that in a future competition, and then copied what they did during your performance. This is just one example of how our mind allows us to remember different events and then attempt to recreate them. It is imagery in one of many forms. There are two main types of imagery in port and exercise: internal and external. * Internal imagery is imagining yourself doing something and concentrating on how the activity feels * External imagery is imagining yourself doing something as tough you are watching it on a film

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  21. Short and Long term effects of exercise on the body.

    the working muscle * increase flow of blood from the heart * increase rate and depth of breathing * increase unloading of oxygen from haemoglobin in working muscle ?Increase in waste products produced by the muscle. ?Rise in muscle temperature. ?A break down in muscle tissue. ?More muscle fibres contract ?Muscles increase in size (hypertrophy). Hypertrophy is the increase of a size or organ. The most common type of organ hypertrophy occurs in the skeletal muscle. ?Muscles become stronger. The more you exercise the stronger your muscles will become.

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  22. impacts of exercise essay

    A third injury you can get is tennis elbow which is inflammation of the tendons which connect wrist and finger extensors to the outer part of the arm just above the elbow. This is a type of injury that can be cause by overtraining in tennis. You can also get shin splints which is an irritation of the muscle insertion in front of the shin bone (tibia). This can be caused by repeated foot impact on a hard surface for example basketball where the player goes to jump for a rebound or slam dunk repeatedly during a game or training session.

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  23. Health & fitness essay

    Basically a footballer's diet should be 2/3 from carbohydrates and 1/3 from protein, with an emphasis on moderate fat. Footballers increase the amount of carbohydrates in their diet as it provides them with more available energy during training sessions and games. Also players tend to avoid fried foods because it can often cause upset stomachs, avoiding these foods tend to also boost performance. Fitness Fitness physical refers to capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigue state. In football, players need all different types of psycho-motor skills, they include the following: 1)

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