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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    it is the main part which makes the body's nervous system because without the nervous system the human body wouldn't be alive due to all the information processed is done in the brain and all movement is decide and told to be carried out by the brain. The cranium is the structure of flat bones which is also well known as the skull. The skull is an extremely important part of the skeletal system because it protects the brain from damage and injury.

    • Word count: 2530
  2. Arousal Theories. Arousal is defined as a perception of anticipation and alertness that performers my encounter before a match

    An important theory of arousal is Drive theory (Hull 1951) A key component of drive theory performer?s level of skill & sees the relationship between arousal & performance as linear: performance increases in proportion to arousal. A very high arousal level would result in a high performance level, provided skill is well-learned. However, if the skill is not well-learned, performance of skill will deteriorate as arousal increases. This theory helps explain why beginners find it difficult to perform well under pressure.

    • Word count: 609
  3. Anatomy and physiology for sport and exercise

    The skull ( cranium) you can brake it down into two regions, the cranial section and the facial section. The cranial bones are the bones that make up your face. The primary functions of skulls are to protect the brain and support of the face. List of all Cranial Bones 1. frontal bone 2. parietal bone 3. temporal bone 4. occipital bone 5. sphenoid bone 6. ethmoid bone List of all Facial Bones 1. mandible 2. maxilla 3. palatine bone 4. zygomatic bone 5. nasal bone 6. lacrimal bone 7. vomer 8. inferior nasal conchae Skeleton Joints Individual bones meet at areas called joints and are held in place by connective tissue.

    • Word count: 1465
  4. Muscles in the Human Body

    Lever; almost always the bone Fulcrum; the pivot point of the lever in which is usually the joint. Muscle force; the force that drives the opposite ends of the muscles together. Resistive force; the force generated by a factor to the external body Torque; the degree in which a force tends to rotate an object. There are three different types of levers in the body; First-class, Second-class and Third-class. First-class; when the muscle force and resistive force is on different sides of the fulcrum e.g. the head resting on the vertebral column. As the head is raised, the facial portion of the skull is the resistance, the fulcrum is between the atlas and occipital bone, and the effort is the contraction of the muscles of the back.

    • Word count: 832
  5. Describing the Muscular System. Specific Exercises for each muscle group.

    end), and the muscle of the larger blood vessels (that help to either dilate or constrict certain sections of the blood vessels). Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of most of the hollow organs of the body, especially in the walls of the gut, the intestines, the ureters, the bladder, and the uterus. As you can well imagine, then, each smooth muscle group has a very specialized function distinct from the others: in the uterus it must work to help a woman deliver her baby; in the bladder it must work to help push urine into the urethra, which also contains smooth muscle, to squeeze urine out of the body.

    • Word count: 1620
  6. Symptoms and Dangers of Sports-Related Concussions.

    During a concussion, the brain rattles around inside the skull. When that happens, the brain cells are affected and the severity depends on how strong the force was that shook the athlete?s brain. In some instances, an athlete may undergo continuous headaches for about a week or so, blurred vision, awful balance, or difficulty in concentration (Sports Related Concussion). In other cases, an athlete may experience permanent damage in his/her information processing pace, problem solving, memory, and planning (Sports Related Concussions).

    • Word count: 2109
  7. Nutrition and Sports Performance

    of fats are fish, oil and lard. There are two types of fats which are saturated and unsaturated. What is Fibre? Is naturally found in plant-based foods such as whole grains, vegetables and they play an integral role in the digestive system where there are two types which are soluble and insoluble fibre. What is vitamins? A group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and nutrition required in small quantities in the diet. RDA ? recommended daily allowance Nutritional requirements; The average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in particular life stage and gender group.

    • Word count: 970

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