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Describe ‘Fitts and Posner’s’ phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance performance.

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Introduction

Describe 'Fitts and Posner's' phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance performance. In order to start to learn a new motor skill our body needs to learn how to control its limbs in such a way that will benefit a certain action. Obviously we don't learn this straight away it takes time to learn and to process all this information so that we can improve and progress from being a novice to being proficient. In 1964 Paul Fitts and Michael Posner developed a theory to explain how our body learns to do this. They divided it into three learning stages 1) The cognitive stage This is first stage of learning where the performer learns what needs to be done. The performer needs to find out, - What is required - What task is to be performed - What the rules are - How to hold the equipment, e.g. ...read more.

Middle

The performer has learned the fundamentals of a skill and can performing it adequately and quite consistently under varying conditions. The cognitive feedback has been learned so that the different parts of the skill can be performed and co-ordinated together giving an outcome more in line with the performers expectation. Significant errors are detected and corrected with and without the help of exterior sources such as coaches and videos of their performance. The performer aims to refine the skill In this stage there is quite a lot of difference between a sports person at the top of this stage and one that has just entered it. Some performers never overcome this stage 3)The autonomous stage This is the stage that high level performers participate at. This is only ever achieved after much practice and experience, often taking years. In this stage the performer is so elite that the skill is like nothing to them they perform it almost automatically or habitual leaving there mind free to think about other things and not thinking about the motor skill itself. ...read more.

Conclusion

The emphasis should be on understanding what has to be done and the vital parts of the skill should be achieved. To aid in the learning of the skill things like colourful equipment may be used so that the performer pays more attention to them e.g. bigger and brighter cricket bats and balls. The performer must be praised when god things are achieved to boost their confidence and notify that that part was accomplished well. These sessions should be quite short about 20-30 min. To structure practices for people at Associative stage of learning you would need to have a long training period To structure practices for people at a Autonomous stage of learning in this stage coaching should me in small groups in order to gain the most benefit as there will only be small errors in the skill which may otherwise be missed and wont be highlighted and improved upon. In this stage the emphasis is on what they are doing wrong with out the need for praise ...read more.

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