• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the short term and long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, the breathing system and the muscles.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss the short term and long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, the breathing system and the muscles Exercise is defined as activity that requires physical or mental exertion especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness. During exercise, the cardiovascular system, the breathing system and the muscles work in conjunction with each other in order to perform their tasks more efficiently. A vital process of exercise is respiration. The production of energy. Principally, respiration is the breaking down of oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide, water and ATP (energy). However, there are two types of respiration. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen and has the ability to break down both fatty acids and glucose. Anaerobic respiration takes place when there is a lack of oxygen, a lactate is formed and fatty acids cannot be broken down. In this essay I plan to explore the long and short-term effects on these different systems. The cardiovascular system involves the pulsating heart and flow of blood around the body in order to carry oxygen to the major organs including the muscles and returning the deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The heartbeat, the rate at which the heart pumps blood around the body, changes depending on the amount of physical activity. The average persons resting heart rate is between 60 and 70 beats per minute. ...read more.

Middle

This means that the inhalation and exhalation rates during exercise are increased in two ways. The tidal volume, namely the amount taken in each inspiration and expiration and also the rate of breathing, the number of breathes taken per minutes. The increase between these two figures can be as much as twenty times. So, an increase in tidal volume on breathing rate means that the amount of oxygen taken in will be directly increased. With more oxygen being inspired, the diffusion rate at the alveolar-capillary exchange surface will need to increase. The increase in diffusion rate in made possible by the increase in blood flow. During exercise, adrenaline is secreted into the blood steam, from the adrenal gland and brings about vasodilation. As well as oxygen and nutrients needing to be supplied to the muscles, waste product such as carbon dioxide need to be removed. Carbon dioxide can also be removed more efficiently from the blood. The short-term effects of exercise on the breathing system are, shortness of breath and rapid breathing. This occurs in order to replace the oxygen in the blood and remove the carbon dioxide, which has built up during exercise. The internal intercostal muscles and diaphragm are the reasons for this rapid breathing. The intercostal muscles contract more strongly than usual in order to expire carbon dioxide and other waste products more efficiently. ...read more.

Conclusion

This also means that athlete respire more fat than unfit people therefore have a lower fat content in their body and higher muscle bulk. Physical exercise that is directed mainly at working the muscles has a great effect on the strength of the muscle. The more the muscles are exercised the greater their strength. Exercising the muscles increases their size and consequently increases their strength. The more exercise that muscles do, the greater the blood supply. Regular exercise increases the blood vessels in the muscles and consequently increases the supple of energy and oxygen. Finally, regular exercise of the muscles improves movement and coordination between antagonistic muscles. It improves the speed in which muscles are able to relax and contract, as muscles that do not relax quickly enough can be torn. If muscles are under exercised and then are suddenly put under periods over exertion, they can become damaged, sprained or torn. Over exercise, rapid cooling and insufficient salt are all factors that can cause cramp. In conclusion exercise affects these three different systems in many different ways, however it is important to take into account each individuals personal health, fitness and lifestyle when considering the effects of exercise. For example a young healthy athlete who eat a balanced diet, doesn't smoke and trains regularly is going to have a more effective breathing cardiovascular, breathing and muscular system than a 60 year old obese diabetic who has smoked forty a day since he was 17. Alice Unwin 09/05/2007 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    If the heart beats 62 times in 1minute and the stroke volume is 81ml, the cardiac output would be 5022ml per minute. The typical cardiac output for an adult is around 5000ml, although this can reach up to 30000ml per minute during very intense exercise.

  2. The Long and Short Term Effects of Exercise

    This returns to normal after a period of rest. An increase in blood flow around the muscles and rapid heat loss through the skin may continue a short while after exercise. 'The increased heart rate and blood flow has an immediate effect on the lungs as they can receive up to four times as much blood.'1 A long-term effect

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    The inner part of the clavicle forms an elliptical part for attachment. (Dr. Gray, 1901 p135-137) Anterior View of the Pelvis and Leg Taken from http://www.lrn.org/Graphics/Skeletal/pelvic.gif Femur: The shaft is almost a perfect cylinder. A little broader at the bottom than at the top.

  2. effects of exercise on cardiovascular system

    During steady aerobic exercise involving large muscle groups the systolic pressure increases, while diastolic pressure remains constant or in well trained athletes it may drop. Systolic pressure increases when a greater intensity is carried out this is so the right amount of blood is delivered to the working muscles quickly.

  1. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during ...

    Extension Extension is the opposite of flexion, as it is increasing the angle between two bones. Extension occurs when bending backwards at the trunk, the shoulder movements of the arm or bringing the shoulder backwards, when the arm straightens at the elbow, at the hip when the thigh moves backwards and when straightening the knees.

  2. The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac ...

    Thermoregulation Steady state exercise increases sweating. This beneficial initial response is because of the significant increase in plasma volume that happens during steady state exercise. Increased plasma volume supports sweat gland function during heat stress, and maintains the correct plasma volume for the cardiovascular demands of the exercise.

  1. Describe the components of a balanced diet.

    Fibre also removes some saturated fats and cholesterol therefore protecting the body a little from the build up of plaques in blood vessels. Fruit, vegetables and cereals are a good source of dietary fibre. Water The diet must provide water which is required as a solvent.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Produce graphs and tables to show results. Produced graphs to highlight the differences between pre training and post training. Week 19: 14th Jan 08 H Strengths and weaknesses of the program. I portrayed the validity of my results showing their accuracy and then the limitations to the methodology of the type of training.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work