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Education in sport

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Introduction

Education in sport The development of modern sport as a global entity have been inextricably linked to the concept of education. Modern sport originated in educational institutes primarily in Britain during the mid-to-late nineteenth century, and was exported worldwide as an integral part of that educational system. Within these institutions, sport was originally seen as a device for building and demonstrating 'character', a rather vague term that is still used as a justification for its inclusion as an important extracurricular activity in schools and colleges today. As this review will show, sport in schools have been credited with teaching values of sportsmanship and fair play to participants, increasing athletes' educational aspirations, developing a sense of community and group cohesion among student, helping to reduce dropout rates, and giving poor and minority youth access to higher education. However the educational 'effect' of sport has not been confined to educational institutes. ...read more.

Middle

In American high schools these rules are literally written on the locker room walls. For example slogans such as 'there is no 'I' in team', 'quitters never win and winners never quit' and 'show me a good loser and I'll show you a good loser', teach us that we should sink our individuality into the greater goal of team victory and never cease to strive for success. After all America is a nation of 'winners' and we should be satisfied with nothing less than being 'number 1'. The failures of English soccer and cricket teams in international competition in recent years have been interpreted as symbolic of a general air of pessimism in the nation, and a 'wilful nostalgia' for what has been perceived as a more positive sporting era in the past. These Introductory comments illustrate two problems with regard to the issues of education and sport, one substantive, the other organizational. ...read more.

Conclusion

Underlying all these observations is the theme that sport as education has a very 'modernist' ring to it, and is very much part of the modernist tradition of progress and emancipation. The following review is a record of attempts be social scientists to interpret this tradition using a number of theoretical and methological perspectives. These include empirical approaches designed to test the usually anecdotal evidence given to support competitive sports programs in schools and colleges. This research tries to assess what changes occur as a result of participation in interscholastic athletes. Other approaches from a Marxist and critical theory perspective have challenged the underlying assumptions of 'equality' in society and how sport can help to perpetuate social class race and gender inequalities, and encourage practices such as dieting, drug taking and aggression which endanger physical and mental health. In particular, feminist research has revealed the way sport can reinforce patriarchy as the natural order of social relationship between male and females. ...read more.

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