• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems.

Extracts from this document...


Responses to Exercise In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems that are affected. First of all, there are many responses that occur in the cardiovascular system that make changes within the first two minutes of exercise. One of these is heart rate. The heart rate increases by pumping more blood around the body. Normally, the cardiac muscles of the heart walls will contract around 60-80 times a minute. However, when exercise is started, the body realises that more oxygen is needed for the muscles to work at their full potential. Therefore, the heart pumps more blood carrying much needed oxygen to the working muscles. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of one ventricle of the heart each beat. With aerobic exercise training, it is possible to increase stroke volume, meaning that more blood will be pumped out of the heart with each beat, resulting in a more efficient heart and more oxygen being delivered to the muscles. ...read more.


Therefore with training, it is possible to increase the efficiency of your breathing during exercise. Also, during anaerobic exercises, it is possible to perform the valsalva manoeuvre which is the process of breathing out against a closed mouth and nose. Pulmonary ventilation is a measure of the rate of ventilation, meaning the exchange of air between the lungs and the air. The rate of pulmonary ventilation is defined as the tidal volume multiplied by the number of breaths taken per minute. During the first minute of exercise, breathing rate increases and so does tidal volume. Therefore, the pulmonary ventilation also increases. When we want our muscles to move for exercise, we must send a message from our brains to our muscles through nerve impulses. These nerve impulses are small electric currents which run through the central nervous system, through the nerves and then into the muscle tissue. These nerves that send the signal are known as motor neurones. This is what happens in the first moments of exercise, so that the brain knows that the muscles need to work. ...read more.


This energy is then used to make the muscles contract for the start of exercise. There are three energy systems in our body that make the ATP we need. As soon as we start exercising, the system that we use to produce ATP is the phosphocreatine system. This produces ATP much quicker than any other system and does not involve oxygen which means it is a anaerobic energy system. This system is used for the first ten seconds of the two minutes of exercise but cannot last for longer than that as it is designed for short bursts of energy such as sprinting. This is where the lactic acid system comes in. In the absence of oxygen, glucose is broken down into pyruvate. This is then converted into lactic acid which produces ATP very quickly. This system will produce the majority of energy for the first two minutes of exercise. The stored ATP will be used on the outset, then for the next ten seconds the phosphocreatine energy system will be used and for the remaining time the lactic acid system is used as it can last up to three minutes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Body In Action Assignment. Energy systems.

    4 star(s)

    Phosphocreatine is another high energy molecule which is found in the muscle fibres. The phosphate system is useful for short single or continuously bursts of energy around 10 seconds. Javelin is a good example of an event this system would be used for and long jump is also another example.

  2. Skeletal and muscular systems

    Voluntary muscles Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to facilitate movement, by applying force to bones and joints; via contraction. They generally contract voluntarily (via nerve stimulation), although they can contract involuntarily.

  1. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Quick thinking is needed to be able to make the next best possible pass. Component of Fitness Test Result Discussion of Comparison to National Averages Speed 30 Metre Sprint 4.43 seconds Compared to the national average, my speed rating is excellent with the national excellent time being <4.5 Strength Back

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    when our bodies blood sugar levels are low, the liver has the ability to convert glycogen into glucose and even the skeletal muscles' store of glycogen. It is estimated that our bodies glycogen stores could last during exercise for up to 2 hours, from then onwards our body adapts by

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Footwork can be an issue if it keeps being identified by the umpire as an offence. It can affect the game by giving a free pass to the opposite team. Intercepting Big arm gestures whilst jumping to attempt intercepting the ball.

  2. Discuss the short term and long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, the ...

    However, if a person is not physically fit, and they over exert themselves in exercising, too much strain on the heart means it is not so efficient and their endurance and cardiovascular fitness is not as good as athletes in training.

  1. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the ...

    Roughly two thirds of the blood in the ventricle is put out with each beat. With the onset of exercise, stroke volume increases with increasing rates of work and then gradually levels off at a relatively high level until the exercise has finished.

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Extension of the elbow Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) Biceps Brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Lower Body Extension of the knee Quadriceps Group Rectus femoris Anterior Inferior iliac Spine (pelvis)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work