Medical & Commercial Uses of Fibre Optics.

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Introduction

Medical & Commercial Uses of Fibre Optics. The use of fibre optics over copper cable offers many advantages. Firstly, they are capable of carrying signals with much less energy loss than copper cable, and with a much higher bandwidth. They have a much larger information-carrying capacity and are not subject to electrical interference. Optical fibres are much lighter and thinner than copper cable and hence less space is needed, making it easier for engineers to install. They offer another big advantage in sense of security - it is much more difficult to gain access to unauthorised data travelling through optical fibres. Running costs are also cheaper, due to the fact that fibre consumes far less electrical power than copper. Signals sent over long-distance fibre-optic cables need less amplification than do signals sent over copper cables of equal length. Many communication companies have installed large networks of fibre-optic cables. Underwater fibre-optic cables carry signals across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. There are only a couple of minor disadvantages. One being that the price of optical fibres is more than the cost of copper cable on a per meter basis.

Middle

Optical fibres transmit energy in the form of light pulses. The technology is similar to that of the coaxial cable, except that the optical fibres can handle tens of thousands of conversations simultaneously. Multimode fibre is commonly used as the "backbone" to carry signals between the hubs of Local Area Networks (LAN's) from where copper coaxial cable takes the data to the desktop. Fibre links to the desktop, however, are also common. Cable Televisions in the home tend to use optical fibre because of its very low power consumption. Closed circuit television(CCTV) security systems use optical fibre because of its inherent security, as well as its other advantages. Many advances have been made in recent years in the use of Optical Fibres as sensors. Gas concentration, chemical concentration, pressure, temperature, and rate of rotation can all be sensed using optical fibre. Optical fibres are also being used in a wide variety of sensing devices, ranging from thermometers to gyroscopes. The potential of their applications in this field is nearly unlimited, because the light sent through them is sensitive to many environmental changes, including pressure, sound waves, and strain, as well as heat and motion.

Conclusion

The doctor diagnoses this problem by looking into the knee joint through the arthroscope. Then the cartilage is removed with other instruments through a second incision. The main advantage of arthroscopic surgery is that the operation can be performed through a small incision at the joint. As a result, a patient can sometimes have the surgery and leave the hospital the same day. Also, the patient experiences a minimum amount of discomfort, and healing time is much shorter than for other methods of surgery. The simplest application of optical fibers is the transmission of light to locations otherwise hard to reach, for example, the bore of a dentist's drill. Also, bundles of several thousand very thin fibers assembled precisely side by side and optically polished at their ends, can be used to transmit images. Each point of the image projected on one face of the bundle is reproduced at the other end of the bundle, reconstituting the image, which can be observed through a magnifier. Image transmission by optical fibres is widely used in medical instruments for viewing inside the human body and for laser surgery, in facsimile systems, in phototypesetting, in computer graphics, and in many other applications. Sarah Jane Gibbons 11Cri Fibre Optics

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