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Survival of the fittest or the adaptation of conservative and liberal states

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Introduction

Ricardo Moreno Contro Survival of the fittest or the adaptation of conservative and liberal states Liberalism and conservatism have shaped and altered western nations for the past two centuries into the democratic governments we now see in every developed country. Of the major political doctrines to emerge since the Middle Ages these two have withstood, almost intact, through the passage of time, why? Liberalism can trace its roots to the Carta Magna, but as a structured set of beliefs, it wasn't until the Enlightenment that it evolved into what is now considered "classical liberalism". Conservatism, on the other hand, first developed in the writings of Edmund Burke and his book Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). Both conservative and liberal states share the characteristics of any modern state (sovereign, independent, territorial, monopoly on power and taxation, public and private spheres, etc.), but they differ greatly on the role of the government and in the rights and obligations of the individual. But as I will argue later it is not their differences or similarities the reason for their survival in the political jungle, but their relationship. Contemporary conservatism and liberalism If any set of events influenced Hegel to argue that freedom is the "...leading principle of development" (Hegel: 18) ...read more.

Middle

so then a government can only be just, therefore justifiable as long as it is egalitarian. The way to reach this egalitarian government and society is a social contract that should begin with what Rawls calls the "original agreement". Rawls follows the liberal dogma that individuals posses certain inalienable rights (which inevitably lead to obligations) making it the responsibility of the government to protect these rights (and enforce obligations). These rights should be universal and just, and the only way to achieve the highest level of universality and fairness is to create a hypothetical original agreement, debated under a "veil of ignorance", that will inevitably lead to a social contract which will not favor any social group. This social contract creates a society where institutions can exist as long as they don't commit injustices. The symbiotic relationship between liberalism and conservatism As the new century unfolds, every developed nation has a democratic state dominated by liberal and conservative politics. There is no purely conservative or liberal state, in the western world we have seen a constant balancing shift between these two doctrines, and while the intelligentsia keeps on perfecting political ideologies, no degree of perfection has allowed for conservative or liberal doctrine to have a monopoly on state policies. ...read more.

Conclusion

First of all because that would mean suppressing opposing political opinions and the democratic process, which can not happen in a "liberal" state, it could happen theoretically in a conservative state if its done in a very gradual manner which is rather unlikely, due to the second reason why this can not happen. Because it would eliminate the indoctrination of the state by the present and by society; the election process has proven to be the best way to have peaceful revolutions to remove unwanted "monarchs", making it ideal to indoctrinate the state and therefore political ideas as well. Globalization is another reason why conservative/liberal politics flourished; democracy is intricately attached to capitalism due to its liberal economic policies, and capitalism is the driving force of globalization, (Toynbee: 267). Therefore if globalization attempts to indoctrinate markets from around the globe into accepting capitalism, it consequentially indoctrinates nations into accepting democratic style governments that are composed of conservative and liberal policies (for the most part). Globalization has an exponential effect on the indoctrination of the masses; through popular media outlets, nations reluctant to western indoctrination are helpless, because social indoctrination is done gradually with out a radical change in lifestyles and thus eroding the natives concept of normality (Horney: 18), making it inevitably for society to indoctrinate the state into accepting western influence. 1 ...read more.

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