• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Growth and Development

Extracts from this document...


Assignment 4.1 Human Growth & Development This assignment requires me to research the main psychological factors that have an affect upon human growth and development, I shall identify the primary social factors that influence psychological and social development then apply them to myself; discussing how these factors may impact upon the individual and within a counselling setting. I will also deliver to my peers a presentation on Daniel N. Stern and his work relating to human growth and development (see appendix), discuss my research of his theory within this assignment then comment on the work of additional theorists. Daniel N. Stern Professor Daniel N. Stern is one of the world's leading scientist in the field of infant psychology along side, Bowlby, and Winnicotte. Stern developed detailed models of how infants as young as a few weeks of age begin to develop and retain a representation of the mother-child interactions which they are experiencing. He demonstrated that the infant could bring to the mother-child interaction an influence of its own, and that the very young infant's inherent or genetically given characteristics, reflected largely in its patterns of affective sign and degree of motor activity and non-verbal communication, these were factors in later behaviour that could be characterized as secure or insecure. Stern's studies also showed that the quality of mother-infant "face play" starting at about three months has a profound and durable effect on later measures of security and cognition. ...read more.


Stage 2 The anal-muscular stage from eighteen months to four years sees the child enter a phase where a level of independence is achieved. Care givers need to generate an environment in which firm but fair boundaries are implemented in order for the child to develop an assurance of own abilities. Stage 3 From the ages of three to six the child enters the genital-locomotor stage were an understanding of right and wrong develops. An even balance of guilt and initiative should produce a child that is aware of its own capabilities and the affects its actions have on others, however, the child that has no clear understanding of right or wrong could be prone to hurting others and would see guilt as being "weak". Stage 4 The Latency stage occurs from approximately age 6 to twelve years where social skills are derived from the young person's surroundings. However, during the Latency stage development is affected in a larger degree by external factors such as school friends, teaching staff and the extended family. At this stage the child has to learn how to feel competent. Stage 5 From the ages of approximately 14-20 years the young person enters adolescence where a sense of role identify is developed with the individual understanding who they are and their place in society. Stage 6 Young adulthood is entered between the ages of 20 - 35 years where intimate relationships are developed with the expectation of giving and receiving love, and where many couples decide to begin a family. ...read more.


We had an elderly English neighbour who looked after her disabled daughter, she constantly had us over for tea, and brought us gifts for no reason. I experience a teacher who knew I was constantly being bullied and attacked in the playground, so made me the "milk monitor" bringing authority and respect from the other children as they had to collect their milk from me. The experience of having a variety of positive and negative people in my life helped me to see the world with a balanced perspective. Despite the injustice and discrimination experienced I learnt tolerance, to be a peacemaker, to negotiate and to compromise. This I believe has empowered me to approach stages 6 to 8 in a very optimistic and positive view, and still hold onto the ethics, some traditions and values I was brought up with to my children. Love the Lord, Don't fight each other and everyone is responsible for their own actions and behaviour. Therefore when considering social factors I can relate to Erikson's model and stages. When considering personal growth, relationships and development , I understand and can relate to Bowbly's theory of attachment and that there are many social factors to be aware of when counselling. These apply to what the client brings but also to what the counsellor may, or may not, be aware of. In bringing this essay to a close I believe that I have identified the main social and psychological factors affecting human growth and development. I have applied social factors to myself, discussing the impact they may have upon an individual and upon the counselling setting. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. counselling stages of attachement

    Culturally Biased - The findings of the attachments are seen as being a reflection of American culture and may not be relevant to other cultures which have different child rearing practices, so what could be seen as an insecure attachment in America, may be secure in Japan.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    out of tone, but that I did my best to talk slowly, and loudly so they comprehend me. Whilst in the interaction I knew that I was going to have to relax my voice and especially my body language in order for me to achieve the purpose of my interaction.

  1. c hallenging a client to change

    In challenging a client during sessions some useful challenging questions a counsellor may ask a client maybe: - What would this situation look like if you managed it better? - What changes would there be your lifestyle? - What would you do differently with the people in your life?

  2. Investigate the stages that infants go through when developing attachments.

    The work was also objective and value free. This all makes the learning theory of attachment high in reliability. * The theory makes common sense and emphasises on the relationship of food as a reinforcer for attachment. Weaknesses - * The person to whom an infant is attached is not always the person who feeds them.

  1. Is Popular culture an Influence on Violent Behaviour?

    that there is no direct link between violent behaviour and popular culture . Therefore, when looking at case studies such as the Columbine tragedy it is clear that other factors in the two killer's lives would have acted as the stimuli for the aggression the boys practised.

  2. Task1 Counselling 1aPhysical signs and symptoms of stress

    high incidence of hostility, himself in imitation of the aggression he has witnessed. Mrs A's son may not be able to differentiate between reality and fantasy. P10 Behaviourist Perspective The theory of B.F.Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behaviour.

  1. Approaches to Psychology & ethics.

    Watson in the early 1900s. His position came to be called behaviourism. He believed that psychologists could not afford to "speculate" upon the unobservable inner workings of the mind, since they are too private to be studied scientifically. For the behaviourist, much of their research focuses on objectively observable behaviour, rather than any internal process.

  2. The Funeral

    Greg and Kathy hadn't been getting along- Kathy wanted her children back and she was going to get them- he had the perfect opportunity. It was Greg's turn to say a few words- he walked up to the front and took a piece of crumpled paper out his pocket and began.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work