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Human Growth and Development

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Introduction

Assignment 4.1 Human Growth & Development This assignment requires me to research the main psychological factors that have an affect upon human growth and development, I shall identify the primary social factors that influence psychological and social development then apply them to myself; discussing how these factors may impact upon the individual and within a counselling setting. I will also deliver to my peers a presentation on Daniel N. Stern and his work relating to human growth and development (see appendix), discuss my research of his theory within this assignment then comment on the work of additional theorists. Daniel N. Stern Professor Daniel N. Stern is one of the world's leading scientist in the field of infant psychology along side, Bowlby, and Winnicotte. Stern developed detailed models of how infants as young as a few weeks of age begin to develop and retain a representation of the mother-child interactions which they are experiencing. He demonstrated that the infant could bring to the mother-child interaction an influence of its own, and that the very young infant's inherent or genetically given characteristics, reflected largely in its patterns of affective sign and degree of motor activity and non-verbal communication, these were factors in later behaviour that could be characterized as secure or insecure. Stern's studies also showed that the quality of mother-infant "face play" starting at about three months has a profound and durable effect on later measures of security and cognition. ...read more.

Middle

Stage 2 The anal-muscular stage from eighteen months to four years sees the child enter a phase where a level of independence is achieved. Care givers need to generate an environment in which firm but fair boundaries are implemented in order for the child to develop an assurance of own abilities. Stage 3 From the ages of three to six the child enters the genital-locomotor stage were an understanding of right and wrong develops. An even balance of guilt and initiative should produce a child that is aware of its own capabilities and the affects its actions have on others, however, the child that has no clear understanding of right or wrong could be prone to hurting others and would see guilt as being "weak". Stage 4 The Latency stage occurs from approximately age 6 to twelve years where social skills are derived from the young person's surroundings. However, during the Latency stage development is affected in a larger degree by external factors such as school friends, teaching staff and the extended family. At this stage the child has to learn how to feel competent. Stage 5 From the ages of approximately 14-20 years the young person enters adolescence where a sense of role identify is developed with the individual understanding who they are and their place in society. Stage 6 Young adulthood is entered between the ages of 20 - 35 years where intimate relationships are developed with the expectation of giving and receiving love, and where many couples decide to begin a family. ...read more.

Conclusion

We had an elderly English neighbour who looked after her disabled daughter, she constantly had us over for tea, and brought us gifts for no reason. I experience a teacher who knew I was constantly being bullied and attacked in the playground, so made me the "milk monitor" bringing authority and respect from the other children as they had to collect their milk from me. The experience of having a variety of positive and negative people in my life helped me to see the world with a balanced perspective. Despite the injustice and discrimination experienced I learnt tolerance, to be a peacemaker, to negotiate and to compromise. This I believe has empowered me to approach stages 6 to 8 in a very optimistic and positive view, and still hold onto the ethics, some traditions and values I was brought up with to my children. Love the Lord, Don't fight each other and everyone is responsible for their own actions and behaviour. Therefore when considering social factors I can relate to Erikson's model and stages. When considering personal growth, relationships and development , I understand and can relate to Bowbly's theory of attachment and that there are many social factors to be aware of when counselling. These apply to what the client brings but also to what the counsellor may, or may not, be aware of. In bringing this essay to a close I believe that I have identified the main social and psychological factors affecting human growth and development. I have applied social factors to myself, discussing the impact they may have upon an individual and upon the counselling setting. ...read more.

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