Theoretical perspectives on disability
Theoretical perspectives on disability INTRODUCTION The social perception of disabled people as tragic has been challenged for over forty years both in New Zealand and Internationally. The closure of institutions in the 1970's and 80's and the move to community living certainly helped in terms of disabled people at last being able to organise themselves and fight for their rights. This coincided with a rejection of the idea that impairment and disability are the same and a new conception of disablement by groups such as the Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS), as being the result of social disadvantages, oppression and exclusions that people with impairments are subjected to in all areas of their lives. Such oppression was viewed by disabled people as being similar to those of gender, race, class and sexuality (Swain et al, 2004). Three models have informed and continue to inform, to varying degrees the way disabled people are treated in western society in general. Models of disability Drake (1999) and Swain et al (2004) believe there is a difference between impairment and disability. Impairment is understood as the lacking of part or all of a limb, organ, or mechanism of the body, sensory or intellectual functioning; while disability is viewed as "the disadvantage or restriction of activity caused by a contemporary social organisation which
Evaluate the idea that sociological research has had no important effect on social policy.
Evaluate the idea that sociological research has had no important effect on social policy When considering if sociological research has had an important effect on social policy, the theoretical functions of sociology have to be established. Functions of sociology are thought to be that it allows us to understand the world around us and provides us with knowledge and insight. It also allows people to reflect upon their own experiences of life and 'liberates' them. How far this knowledge and insight that sociological research gives us has an important effect on social policy is debatable, since 'important' is a subjective term in itself. Certain groups of disabled people, ethnic minorities and the feminist and gay movement have all benefited greatly from sociological research. It has allowed them to challenge images of themselves (stereotyped in the media) and to initiate policies sympathetic to them and led to an increase of self-knowledge. Research has shown the extent of discrimination and enabled them to show these findings to the government and to demand action. Some of this action has resulted in 'Anti-discrimination laws' -enabling groups become aware of their own-shared identity and take pride in them. The Crown Prosecution Service implemented one example of a new social policy to crack down on homophobic crime, on 28th November 2002. It urged Crown Prosecutors to use
To what extent does poverty cause social exclusion for older women?
To what extent does poverty cause social exclusion for older women? It is well known that women generally outlive men. Therefore women outnumber men in old age by more than 2:1 over the age of 75 - so clearly retirement and old age are very much issues for and about women. (Fennell et al 1988: 97) What is Social Exclusion? Social exclusion covers such a wide range of issues that it is difficult to define. Definitions of social exclusion usually describe how and why it occurs as well as its implications. The term became popular in the late 1980s and was used to describe the results of the radical economic, industrial and social changes that were taking place in France and elsewhere in Europe. These included long-term or repeated unemployment, family instability, social isolation and the decline of neighbourhood and social networks. Social exclusion was seen to be the outcome of two strands: separation from employment and separation from social relations, particularly the family. The European Union (EU) adopted the term but widened the definition, noting that social exclusion occurs when people cannot fully participate or contribute to society because of "the denial of civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights". Definitions also indicate that it results from "a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, bad
A Social Worker's role is described as being both an agent of social control and an agent of social change. Discuss what you understand this to mean. Analyse the dilemmas that performing these two roles might cause for Social Workers.
Caroline Ayanru Access to Social Work Training Social Work Practice Assignment No. 1 Topic: A Social Worker's role is described as being both an agent of social control and an agent of social change. Discuss what you understand this to mean. Analyse the dilemmas that performing these two roles might cause for Social Workers. The Social work profession grew out of the assistance activities of the 19th Century Charitable Organisations. Formally, all forms of Private voluntary charitable activities, including those of untrained, civic-minded individuals, were regarded as social work. More recently, however, a vast amount of new social research has made possible analyses of the social and economic needs of modern society. The shift from voluntary to statutory work has now rooted social work more firmly within a legal framework of responsibilities. Also, the beliefs of modern social workers appear to be practically the opposite of the principles of social assistance developed by the founders of the profession and are able to successfully effect changes to welfare requirements. It is therefore likely that in so doing they can fail to be inspiring mentors to those welfare recipients who need to be motivated and guided. Ironically, herein lies the dilemma of a Social Worker's role both as an
Social policy, legislative, and organisational context of social work
"Discuss how an understanding of the social work context enables the fulfilment of the social work purpose." Within this essay, the social policies, legislation and organisational context of social work in adult services will be discussed, critically analysed and evaluated. Adult service covers a vast array of services, including probation, substance misuse, adult protection and disabilities, this essay will concentrate on Adult Mental Health. The name 'social policy' is used to apply to the policies which governments use for welfare and social protection and the ways in which welfare is developed in a society. Social work practice is not only about individual needs, it also considers social context. This social context includes the range of inter-professional agencies contributing to packages of care and protection, as well as the relationships between service users and their families, friends and communities. Social work is also predisposed by the social and political climate in which it exists. The roles of social workers and the needs of service users are both influenced and defined by the beliefs, values, policies and laws of society. (http://openlearn.open.ac.uk4) Social policy in the United Kingdom can be traced back to 1572 where An Elizabethan Act made provision for the punishment of beggars and the relief of the vulnerable poor. The Poor Law lasted in one
Mass Media and Popular Culture Team Paper University of Phoenix SOC 105, Introduction to Popular American Culture, SC10ELC08 Professor Daniel Jette' August 18, 2010 Introduction of our paper This paper will be illustrating different aspects of mass media, popular culture, and other types of information distribution in today's environment. Team C will be showing the definition of the concept, "Mass Media" and its developments in today's complex business field. In addition, this composition will be describing different situations from these areas: social impact of the mass media on enculturation (socialization), relationships among the media, the formation of normative cultural values, the impact of the Internet and globalization, and real-world examples in our business environment. U.S. advertisers spend over $186 billion annually on media advertising (Herbig, 2005). Today, Team C's point of view about what we observe every day in connections, community individuals for example, we can masterfully perceive the values of each group. Describe the impact of the mass media on enculturation. Provide at least one real-world example of this impact. (Maurice) The impact of the mass media on enculturation is so omnipresent in today's business world. For example, an exposure of over 61,000 words (the standard American) from the mass media every day in the United States (Herbig,
Compare the Social Democratic and New Right Approaches to theWelfare State and the Social Policies, which flow from either perspective
Compare the Social Democratic and New Right Approaches to the Welfare State and the Social Policies, which flow from either perspective In 1945 Clement Atlee and the Labour Party defeated Winston Churchill's Conservative Party in the General Election. Atlee announced he would introduce the Welfare State outlined in the 1942 Beveridge Report with free medical treatment for all. A national system of benefits was also introduced to provide 'social security' so that the population would be protected from the 'cradle to grave'. The new system was partly built on the National Insurance Scheme set up by Lloyd George in 1911, (www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/beveridge). After the Second World War the British public wanted more than anything to avoid the unemployment of the 1930s. They remembered how difficult life had been then. They were looking forward to a brighter future after the war, where starvation and poverty were eliminated. During the Second World War, the government had asked Sir William Beveridge and a group of experts to examine living standards in Britain, including poverty, education, employment, health and housing. The new Labour Government decided to follow the recommendations of the Beveridge Report, so they set up a Welfare State, (www.mereside.blackpool.sch.uk/Britain%20post%20war). The Labour Party were very proud of the welfare state, they
Can transpacial placements work? Dicuss the arguments for and against this.
CAN TRANSRACIAL PLACEMENTS WORK? DISCUSS THE ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THIS. INTRODUCTION Transracial adoption means adopting children of various races, colour, religion that is from all parts of the world. (Silverman, 1993). Numerous arguments have been developed for and against transracial placements; I came to this project with the view that transracial placements are most definitely a positive aspect. Followers of transracial adoptions believe that children fare better psychologically, emotionally and physically when they are placed in a different racial setting. Opponents believe that children should be brought up by parents of the same race in order for the child to obtain a positive sense of racial identity (Williams, 1998). In this project I am going to discuss the arguments for and against transracial adoption/fostering and hope to identify the extent of the problem. I have also completed an interview with a social worker of a local social services adoption team hopefully this will throw a modern day argument into the mixture. I will then discuss what we as qualified social workers should strive to achieve and what implications may be in our way such as implementing anti-discriminatory practice. FINDINGS Transracial adoption began to be practiced more widely after World War II. Children from war torn countries without families were adopted by families in
Why are black people and minority ethnic groups more likely to experience poverty than the white population?
Why are black people and minority ethnic groups more likely to experience poverty than the white population? Introduction Poverty can take many forms they could be low levels of incomes or not being able to secure resources to have a sustained livelihood, hunger and malnutrition, ill health, low levels of access to education and the simple necessities like sanitation, high rates of morbidity and also mortality caused by illness, being homeless or inadequate housing, being in unsafe environments and finally social exclusion or discrimination. Poverty is a problem internationally and nationally. But what we see is that black people and other ethnic minorities are more likely to experience poverty. So for the purpose of this essay I will discuss the reasons behind this, the way in which I will approach this will be by firstly discussing Migration, settlement and social security. Then I will discuss the lack of employment as a cause of poverty, then low levels of education leads to poverty, poor housing and urban spaces living in poverty, racism and discrimination. Then finally I will draw all my findings together so that I can reach a detailed and comprehensive conclusion. So to begin according to Millar (2009:80-81) The UK saw high levels of inward migration who came from the commonwealth now former commonwealth countries to offer their services i.e. labour. First to come
Roles and challenges of social worker in promoting the rights of children seeking asylum
What roles might you play, and what challenges might you face as a social worker promoting the rights of asylum seeking children. It is certainly not easy when a person or a family has to leave their belongings, home and country to migrate and seek asylum in a search for a better and safe life. In this courageous attempt, children unfortunately, suffer the most as they have the potential risks of being neglected. Asylum seeking children especially those who are unaccompanied may experience extreme psychological trauma as a result of both pre- and post-migratory experiences (Fanning, 2004:211). These children are vulnerable as they need much support in the process of applying for a refuges status and most importantly where they will be placed after a decision has been made. Rutter (2006:93) suggests that "much of the legislative and policy change on asylum and immigration process has had a detrimental affect on the welfare of asylum seeking children". This requires the much needed assistance from social workers who have the training and facilities to provide aid to these children. As McLaughlin (2008:54) writes: Social work involvement with immigrants and asylum seekers should come as no surprise. Given its role in working with those at the margins of society, the disadvantaged oppressed, and given that immigrants and asylum seekers are among the most disadvantaged groups in