GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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This is particularly interesting because the majority of people in Fermanagh were Catholics, hence highlighting the extent of their discrimination. The Sunday Times also wrote that in Derry "of 177 salaried employees, 145 earning £124,424 - were Protestant, and only 32 - earning £20,420 - were Catholic" showing the dramatic differences in wages as well as representation between Catholics and Protestants. With the former being far more poorly paid, one can clearly see a significant amount of discrimination against Catholics in a different respect.
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Then up to May the twelfth a further twelve leaders were shot including James Connolly. The last rebel to be executed was Roger Casement by hanging on August the third. Overall seventy-five were sentenced to death, and two thousand to imprisonment. This turned public opinion in Ireland against the British government. This created a new wave of anti-British feeling. Nationalist opinion in Ireland was radically changing. Militant Nationalists began to attract sympathy. There were a number of short-term consequences of the rising. A small little known party called Sinn Fein formed in 1905 began to get noticed.
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Many of the leaders were found guilty of treason as they were fighting against British forces while the First World War was taking place, meaning that the British troops could not fight in the war. So the leaders of the Easter Rising were shot by firing squads, however this increased support for Home Rule as people such as James Connolly were shot while suffering from gangrene, which would have killed them anyway. These people were then seen as Irish Martyrs.
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Ireland was heading towards a civil war between Ulster Unionists and Irish Nationalists/Republicans BUT the start of World War 1 prevented this. 2. Irish Attitudes Towards World War1 a. Constitutional Nationalists- John Redmond was determined to help the war effort. He thought that if Irish Nationalists fought for Britain, Ireland would be rewarded at the end of the war. But Redmond also believed that the war was a war for small nations. Germany ha invaded Belgium, and like Ireland, Belgium was a small, Catholic country, which Redmond thought Irish Nationalists should help.
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Catholics felt like they were being treated badly by the Northern Ireland Government, which was named Stormont after the famous buildings in which the Government was situated. Stormont was set up in 1922 by Irish Protestants as the Northern Ireland government after partition. It was run by the Northern Ireland Government, who enforced British laws. The first prime minister of Northern Ireland was Sir James Craig, who was later known as Lord Craigavon. He famously said "A Protestant Parliament for a Protestant People".
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This upset the Catholics and people started to make their own private, but much smaller, armies and started to attack the Protestants and burn their property. There had always been a lot of conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants as well. For example, the Battle of the Boyne happened around the times of King James I in 1690. The Protestants won this particular battle and because of this victory it led to annual marches to celebrate their win. Some of the events only happened about fifty years before but could also be blamed for the increase in violence that escalated over the years.
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How did Protestant Politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
A few famous Protestant Politicians, other than Sir James Craig were Reverend Ian Paisley, Basil Brooke, and Terence O'Neill. Ian Paisley was a very strict Protestant and believed that Catholicism was Satanic, and believed that the Catholic leaders were the Anti-Christ. Because he was the leader of the Free Presbyterian Church which he set up in 1951, he preached a lot of negative information about them as well, which caused Protestants to hate Catholics even more, which caused more arguments and violence. Basil Brooke was the third Prime Minister (PM) of Northern Ireland and before that he was a Cabinet Minister.
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Why was there a change in the levels of tension between Unionists and Nationalists between 1968 and 1998?
This resulted in further rioting for two days. These riots would have increased the levels of tension between the Unionists and Nationalists as there would have been fear of even more violence spreading through the Province. This tension led to the government having no choice, but to call in the British army to prevent further violence. At first, the Nationalists welcomed the British troops as they thought that the troops were going to defend the Nationalists from any more violence.
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They believed this because Germans would have to travel up to 1000 miles to reach NI. When the war was under way the government still was slow to react. It wasn't until well into 1941 that the majority of NI was covered by Radar and steps had been taken to introduce anti-aircraft batteries. There were still far from enough anti-defence structures in place to keep NI safe.
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After the Protestants formed, some joined but most remained Catholic. Although most countries were a mix of the two. In 1534, England became a Protestant country whilst Ireland remained Catholic. English monarchs wanted Ireland to change too but they did not possess a large enough army to force them to. This change to England was due to Henry VIII and his reign but mainly for purely selfish personal reasons, as the Pope would not let him divorce and so the two fell out and the Roman Catholic Church took the worst of it and so to get what he wanted, Henry became head of the Church of England and therefore declared England a protestant country.
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Do you agree that the most difficult problem that led to the conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants is the lack of social interaction?
Meanwhile the Catholic children attended private schools where they were taught Irish history, sport and culture. (Example) Thus, the separation of these two groups of children from young meant the lack of fostering of greater understanding between the two groups. Generations of children grew up not knowing each other and to be distrustful of each other. This created further hostility and distrust and contributed to the conflict between the Protestants and Catholics.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Those who disagree, who want a united independent Ireland, are called Nationalists or for those that are extreme Nationalists, Republicans. Unionists generally want Northern Ireland to remain under British control. They do not want to unite with the Republic for two main reasons relating to finance and religion. Many of the Unionists believe that in order to retain good trade links with the United Kingdom and Europe; they must keep a harmonious relationship with them, and remain part of it.
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With what success has the Britain government tried to deal with the Irish Troubles in the years since 1972?
Power sharing was the British government's first attempt at trying to stop the 'troubles' from continuing. The British believed that in 1974 a new scheme needed to be put in place to insure that both the Catholic nationalists and the Protestant unionist both got a fair share of the power in Northern Ireland. The British believed that a new government needed to be introduced to allow both religions a chance to vote and campaign. For the very first time in Irish history the Catholics and the Protestants had to work together and share there power. The British would make sure that voting would be equal and this would then decide the amount of power each party would hold.
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The following events have all helped shape the course of Irish history in the 20th Century: a. The Easter Rising b.The deployment of British troops c.Bloody Sunday Which of these events has had the biggest impact on the history of the conflicts in Ireland
Many Nationalists stopped campaigning against British rule and joined the army to fight Germany. However for many extreme Nationalists, who wanted independence or at least home rule, fighting and dying for Britain was unacceptable. Republicans regarded Britain as a foreign country which did not deserve their loyalty. James Connolly led the Irish Citizen Army, and together with the Irish republican brotherhood they planned to take over Dublin at Easter in 1916, but their plans went wrong. The rebels were outnumbered by British troops, but still more came to the city to help fight.
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The protestant landowners became known as the Protestant Ascendancy, whose power was increased following the Jacobite wars of the late 17th Century. William of Orange's decisive action at the Battle of the Boyne caused the protestant ascendancy to prevail over Jacobite forces. William's robust terms forced the Irish Catholic community to be systematically excluded from power based on land ownership and the enactment of a series of laws to keep Irish peoples subjugated under mainland rule. Amongst the penal laws introduced were: * Exclusion of Catholics from most public offices * On a death by a Catholic, a legatee could
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The events that occurred in Derry on 30 January 1972 became known as Bloody Sunday. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
However, no loyalist paramilitaries were arrested under internment, whereas 1600 nationalists were. This inflamed the nationalist sense of injustice and generated even more hostility between the communities. A civil rights protest march took place on 30th January 1972, though the marchers were confined by the authorities to the Bogside and Creggan areas of Londonderry to prevent possible hooliganism or riot damage taking place in the city centre. The Army was on its guard about the marchers intentions and had erected barriers to confine them. Stones were thrown and insults directed at the soldiers.
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When the First World War broke out in 1914, Ireland was called upon by Britain to go to war against Germany; many Nationalists postponed their campaigning and became soldiers of Britain. Fighting was strongly looked down upon by extreme nationalists, including Pierce and Connolly who still continued to seek independence, or at least to re-establish Home Rule. James Connolly believed that dying and murdering for Britain was seen as risking both yours and other lives for a foreign country that did not merit their allegiance.
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In sport there was also segregation, for example at Linfield FC, a football club in Northern Ireland. If a Linfield scout saw a good player, he would ask him which school he goes to. If it was saint something then he now kicked with the wrong foot. This means that if he was a good player but was Catholic he would have no chance of being selected by a scout. The unfair treatment of Catholics was maintained through vote-fixing by the Protestants to keep political power. Londonderry town council elections were organised so 2 of the 3 wards had a majority of Protestants (North Ward and Waterside Ward).
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They don't want to be treated unfairly. The other half of the nationalists who are republicans want no link with the UK at all. They want to be totally separated. Another difference within the nationalists is the SDLP who want to use peaceful methods of achieving their aims and the IRA and INLA who use violence. There are differences within the unionists. One difference is that the Ulster Unionist Party uses non violence and peaceful methods to achieve its aims whereas the Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force use violence, bombs and scare tactics to achieve their aims.
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The Nationalists, who are mainly Catholic but not violent, wanted Ireland to be united and free from Britain, whereas Unionists, mainly Protestants- also non-violent, wished to remain part of the UK, who they felt protected them. Religious history was the main catalyst which started the troubles. The political situation in Northern Ireland was always what caused concern. The situation of the political violence was then strengthened by historical events. These events supplied a "back-bone" to the difficult arguments concerning Northern Ireland.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Nationalists see themselves as Irish rather than British, they have their own tradition and their own sports like hurling and Gaelic football they have their own culture, poems and history whereas Unionists see themselves as British they follow the Queen, read British Newspapers and in schools the children study about British history.
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if current peace talks are to succeed?
The people of Ireland also helped with the development of peace among members of paramilitaries and supporters of paramilitaries. There was also influence by the USA president Clinton, as a foreign policy would divert eyes from his sex scandal. The secret talks by the British Government and the IRA and also talks between the Republic and Sinn Fein. This lead to the Downing Street Declaration of 1993 stating the two parties of Ireland could bring about a United Ireland if they so wished.
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The British sentenced 90 people to death, and captured many more who were sent to prisons in Britain. 15 of the people sentenced were actually killed. The actions of the British government did raise concerns. The Protestants were loyal to Britain and many of their men died in supporting Britain's war against the Germans by fighting with side by side with British men. They say the Republicans let them down by fighting against Britain. The Republicans in Ireland saw the people who were murdered as martyrs. The British had gone to far their brutality made the republicans angry and even moderates mostly turned to the Republicans views of removing British control of Ireland.
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The lessons were entirely different from those taught in the Protestant school and this will have probably influenced her views going into her career in politics and probably explains why her actions, which I do not have any details of, caused Protestants to call her a "Fidel Castro in a miniskirt". With her rising to power and with the views that she would have gained from her upbringing, she would have possibly had something to do with the troubles and maybe, seeing as she came to power in 1969, been a leading part in helping the Catholic people of Ireland and Northern Ireland have a voice.
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How much Progress had been made in resolving the Political, Economic and Social causes of conflict in Northern Ireland by 1985?
This agreement set up an Intergovernmental conference, where the Northern Ireland Secretary and the Irish foreign minister would meet regularly to cooperate on Security, political and legal issues. This was progress because it now meant that the IRA would have a harder time avoiding official forces, and should lead to a reduction in levels if violence. Another step in the right direction was the attempted reforms, such as the disbandment of the B-Specials in 1969. This was huge progress because it now meant that the Catholics felt far less threatened by the constant violence and torment the B specials struck on the ordinary Catholics of Ireland.
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