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GCSE: Green Plants as Organisms
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A catalyst is needed to increase the rate of the process. In this case, the catalyst is enzymes. Enzymes work, colliding with the carbon dioxide and hydrogen. They only accept carbon dioxide and hydrogen molecules, they're shaped to only accept these. As the temperature increases, more heat energy is provided. The enzymes absorb this heat energy to work faster, colliding more frequently; as a consequence of this, it produces glucose more quickly. Again, there's an optimum temperature in which the reaction rate decreases as it cannot act as a catalyst anymore, the enzmyes denature. Throughout my experiment, I'm going to study the speed of photosynthesis, whilst altering the water to five separate temperatures and observing the speed of the reaction.
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Now place one bottle in an entirely dark environment, and the other in a generally light environment. After a week, gather the two bottles and remove the mung bean sprouts from each bottle. Record the height of each mung bean sprout, and calculate the average height of the sprouts that grew in the dark environment and the average height of the sprouts that grew in the light environment.
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Chickens are being fed chilli so that the farmers don't need to pay for antibacterials. Pepper Pepper has been found to stop the growth of bacteria,fungi and mold. It has been used to treat astma,diahooria,indigestion,fever and obestiy and many more. Black pepper is known to stops intestal gas. It pepper has acids that can burn the growth of fungi and bacteria because pepper contains a burning acid.
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Duckweed plants grow best in nitrogen rich environments. This is especially high in polluted ponds. This means the plant is especially good in cleaning polluted ponds. Factors that affect the growth of plants The major difference between distilled water and that obtained from the tap; is that distillation removes the minerals that are found in tap water. Distilled water does not have the fluoride, chloride or trace amounts of sodium found in tap water. Soil contains a complex mixture array of minerals; it is this in combination with water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen that forms the soil solution.
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Get a piece of filter paper and soak it with tap water. 2. Place the soaked filter paper in a Petri dish. 3. Gather a pencil, and mark a 5 x 5 grid on the filter paper. 4. Place 25 cress seeds on the marked grid. 5. Using tongs, dip a piece of cotton wool in 1% concentrated Sodium metabisulphite solution. 6. Place the soaked cotton wool on a watch glass. 7. Place the watch glass containing the sodium metabisulphite and the Petri dish containing the cress seeds beside each other, in a polythene bag.
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add 200 cm of "pond" water and one spatula full of sodium hydrogen carbonate into a beaker 2) cut a sprig of pondweed 5 cm long 3) place a funnel, a boiling tube half-filled with water and the pondweed into the beaker of water as shown in the diagram 4) place the thermometer in the water of beaker and record the temperature 5) wait for the plant to begin to produce a steady stream of bubbles 6) shield the set-up from unwanted light, e.g room lighting, sunlight, etc.
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Some conditions that affect the rate of transpiration include light intensity, humidity, temperature and wind (Transpiration Article). We decided to test whether light intensity, humidity and wind would affect the transpiration rate of a pine. The conditions were chosen because we knew light initiated photosynthesis, humidity augmented the water moisture in the air and wind decreased the water moisture (Burba and Pidwirny, 2007). All of these factors would in turn affect the transpiration rate. We chose a pine because the density of the stomata on each needle is the same and the mass of needles is easy to measure (Hultine and Marshall, 2001).
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Independent: Type of food (peanut, banana chips, potato chips) Dependent: Change in temperature of water Procedure 1. Measure the mass of your food using the electronic balance 2. Accurately measure 50 ml of water in a measuring cylinder and pour the water in the copper beaker 3. Put the beaker in a tripod stand 4. Measure the initial temperature of water using the digital thermometer and leave the thermometer inside the water throughout the experiment 5. Put a pin through your food and hold the pin using the tongs and burn the food using the Bunsen burner 6.
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Thus the cell swells up and becomes turgid due to the turger pressure applied on the cell wall by the membrane. (Hypotonic) * F the liquid is exactly the same water concentration as the cell (isotonic); there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane. Water crosses the cell membrane in both directions, but the amount going in is the same as the amount going out, so there is no overall movement of water. The cell will stay the same size.
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Early GM food was primarily focused on increasing crop protection from pests. Other concerns included increasing the shelf life of products (e.g. the FlavrSavr), making food resistant to virus (e.g. Hawaiian Papaya) and introduce nutrients and vitamins into food (e.g. Golden Rice). Advantages of GM food: The first commercially grown example of a genetically modified (GM) crop was tomatoes made more resistant to rotting, which was first introduced during the early 1900s. They have a longer shelf life and therefore are easier to ship. Usually, GM foods are for the better; they are more resistant to weeds, pests and diseases, while having a better texture, nutritional values and taste.
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of time Apparatus: * Canadian pondweed * Glass beaker * 250 ml water * Thermometer * Test tube * Funnel * Support (to keep the funnel off the bottom of the beaker. This allows the water to circulate) * Lamp (light source) Method: 1. Collect apparatus.
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Isotonic Solution: This is a solution which has the same concentration of solute as that within the cell. Therefore there would be no movement of water through osmosis. Turgor Pressure: This is the positive internal pressure in the cell resulting from osmotic pressure i.e. it is the pressure of the cell contents pressing against the cell wall. Osmotic Pressure: In a hypotonic solution, water moves into the cell, and as the water moves into the cell, osmotic pressure increases. The reason why plant cells do not burst due to this pressure is that they have a strong cell wall made of cellulose that holds the cell together.
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The molecules will continue to move in and out until the area in which the molecules are found is equal. For this particular investigation I think that the lower the concentration of the sugar solution in the beaker the larger the mass of the potato will be. This is because the water will pass from a high concentration, (in the water itself) to a low concentration, (in the potato chip). Therefore, the chips in more water will have a larger mass than in higher sugar solution.
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I will then pour 250ml of the readymade solutions into the correct test tubes. After this is complete and I have 2 test tubes of 250 ml for each solution, I will use the knife and chopping slate to cut ten slices of potato from the three potatoes and the ruler to measure it so they are the same length. After I have ten slices of potatoes of the same length I will put them onto the scales one by one and record the mass of each slice before the investigation.
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rate ??LI so rate ??1 d2 as LI ??1 d2 Prediction I think that the closer the lamp is to the test tube, the faster the rate of photosynthesis will be. Results - anomalies in red Distance of lamp from plant (cm) Length of bubble after 5 minutes (mm) Average distance (mm) Light intensity (lux) 5 29 49 52 56 56 59 54 4000 10 12 21 22 27 26 30 25 1000 15 9 9 10 12 14 13 11 444 30 2 3 3 2 5 4 3 111 50 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 40
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They vary in shapes and sizes ranging from long thin cylinders to round or even flat structures. They can be as small as a pea or as large as a tennis ball. Although the reason for this adaptation is unknown, many times in the wild ants will live in this "cavern". In this way, the bulb provides a home for the ants while the ants groom the orchid and keep it free from parasites and pests. Orchids which produce pseudobulbs have a different type of leaf structure than those orchids which don't. The sympodial orchids produce their leaves from the pseudobulb.
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I am measuring the uptake of water not actual transpiration (water loss) because it is much easier. Measuring water loss is very difficult and requires specialist equipment. Water is lost through stomata on the underside of the leaves. Diagram of Equipment Factors that affect transpiration: There are many factors that I can change: * Temperature * Relative humidity * Light intensity * Light wavelength * Leaf area/ stomatal density* * Air pressure * Wind speed *This is the one we will change because it is the easiest most independent variable and there is a big enough change to measure as leaves are cut off.
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and a ruler (to measure the height of the cress seeds after seven days.) 2. After collecting all the required apparatus I can now begin to set up my experiment. I will firstly cover the base of the dishes with one layer of cotton wool pads. I will then go on to place 70 seeds into each dish. I will then moisten the cotton wools pads with 15cm3 of water using a syringe. 3. I will then begin to set up my shoeboxes in preparation for the dishes to be placed in each.
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In my experiment, there may be a concentration of the solution which has an equal water potential to the potato, which will result in neither a gain nor a loss of mass for the potato chip as the water would have no preference of location. Plant vacuoles accumulate enough dissolved compounds to give the plant cell a low enough osmotic potential to absorb water via osmosis. Preliminary test: List of apparatus: List of Apparatus Why chosen and how used Beaker Holds the sucrose solution in.
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We use fossil fuels for fuelling our modes of transportation and energy production. For example: A car's gas tank is filled with (liquid) petroleum in order to move. The combustion engine in a car combusts and ignites the petroleum (as it is extremely flammable) and converts this power into energy used to put pressure on the car pistons and move the car wheels. This happens constantly throughout the car journey and is the explanation behind a car moving forward. Although there are many advantages to using fossil fuels, there are many disadvantages also.
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osmosis. Aim: To find out in which solution (salted or pure water) the potatos cell lets more things in.
Get all the apparatus shown above. 2. Cut 9 equal pieces (estimate) of potatoes with the potato cutter. 3. Dry them with a napkin. 4. Measure the mass of each one of them with the scale. (Record the results). 5. Label them as potato 1, potato 2, etc. 6. Fill a beaker with 50 ml of water.
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The effect that different concentrations of salt solution in the water has on strips of potato, due to osmosis
I think this will happen due to the effect osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semi permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. A semi permeable membrane is just one with very small holes in it. So small in fact that only water molecules can pass through them, and bigger molecules like salt can't. The water molecules pass both ways through the membrane in a two-way traffic.
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+ 6 H2O(liquid) + photons � C6H12O6(aqueous) + 6 O2(gas) Therefore, for the following experiment, we will see the effect of nitrates, phosphates and potassium ions in the form of weak mineral solutions on the growth of a plant. The nitrates are needed for the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, chlorophyll and nucleic acids. Phosphates are taken from the soil and are necessary for making ATP, DNA and RNA which are substances that store the plant energy. They are also needed for making phospholipids or membranes. Lastly, potassium ions enable homeostasis in the plants and cause the shrinking and swelling of plant cells.
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The aim of my experiment is to find out how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis in elodea (pondweed).
Table of result (preliminary work) amount of sodium carbonate (g) Amount of water(HCl) (ml) Amount of pondweed (g) Time (min) Distance of length from the lamp (cm) Number of oxygen bubble given off 1st reading 2nd reading 3rd reading Average 3 1350 1.1 2 10 121 121 125 122 3 1350 1.1 2 20 67 52 61 60 3 1350 1.1 2 30 19 18 23 20 3 1350 1.1 2 40 15 18 21 18 3 1350 1.1 2 50 6 5 6 5 From my opinion I think this experiment was accurate enough to be the foundation for my main experiment because it gave me a good set
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