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GCSE: Green Plants as Organisms
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From this point onwards, sugar added to the solution will make it a higher concentration of sugar then in the cell. Water will therefore diffuse out of the cell into the solution. To conduct this experiment, the following instruments will be needed: 5 or more Petri dishes, a whole cucumber, a cucumber slicer, sugar solution, distilled water, a measuring cylinder, a pipette or syringe, a balance and a timer. Firstly, during the preliminary work the range of sugar concentrations will be decided.
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I am investigating how changing the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide affects the rate of reaction in the enzyme Catalase. This will involve placing a set quantity of liver (a source of Catalase)
Cut 1g of liver and measure it's mass accurately on the scales ensuring it is exactly 1g. Add the liver to the Hydrogen Peroxide and quickly place the bung into the opening of the test tube. At the same time start the stopwatch. Swirl the solution around to certify that the liver is in contact with the Hydrogen Peroxide. 5. Time how long it takes for the amount of oxygen produced to reach 25ml. After doing so, empty the measuring cylinder of all gases and refill with water.
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Humidity is always high at about 80 percent. Why was the canal built? The Panama Canal was built in order to avoid travelling around South America, reducing voyages by thousands of miles and many days. The canal was also built in part as military reasons, to give the U.S navy rapid access to both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However since world war two the canal has been considered vulnerable to attack. Therefore the canal was considered less valuable as a military asset. The other purpose of building the canal for American was to link its east and west coasts and expand trade.
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Water Microbiology: a look at a gastrintestinal infection outbreak. Abstract. This investigation is looking at three water samples A, B, and C, which
Samples have been taken to try to establish the like source of infection. This was done by the use of two different ager, one being nutrient ager and the other Mac Conkeys ager. Nutrient ager is used to establish the amount of bacteria present in the samples of water. It is not possible to tell if the microorganisms detected on nutrient ager or pathogenic, as the medium will grow all organisms in the water that can grow in the conditions provided in the petri dishes.
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I predict as the potato surface area is increased the more oxygen bubbles will be produced; this will happen because as the surface area increase's the surface area of enzymes increases consequently more enzymes to react with the hydrogen peroxide. I think this will happen because an enzyme called catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme is found in the cells of a potato. When hydrogen peroxide is broken down it forms water, which stays in the cells, and oxygen, which leaves the cells.
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This diet I have designed is to be used for a footballer.MondayBreakfast2 slices of toast with low fat margarine
Thursday Breakfast Bowl of Porridge and a glass of water or fresh orange juice. Snack 1 orange, apple or banana and a glass of water, milk or orange. Lunch Jacket potato with beans, with a glass of water. Snack Small bunch of Seedless grapes with a glass of water. Dinner Grilled pork with pasta and boiled vegetables, with a glass of water. Snack Portion of canned sliced peaches in juice, with a glass of water. Friday Breakfast Grilled bacon on toast cutting the fat off the bacon, with a glass of semi skimmed milk.
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We have been told to germinate and monitor a special seed (Cress Seed which is also known as the Mung seed) through out many stages of temperature, water level, amount of light and etc...
After six days we checked to see the result. Controlled Conditions The controlled condition which we must limit is the amount of seeds, water and light. Observation: I observed the 6 test tubes and these are the results that I came up with after 6 days. 1. The first test tube after six days had not grown and showed no progress. 2. As you may have imagined, due to the surroundings and environment that the mung seed was kept in, only the shoot grew 2cm.
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In the green water, among the rushing bubbles he is looking at me still. His face shows white against
The sun was shining and our legs were going and wind squeezing tears out of our eyes. It was a good run, good enough for sweat to break out on my back, and my leg muscles starting to complain. Through the brown fields, slower now. Max began to tire and I made up the gap coming up along side him. He was red in the face, grinning with concentration. We came to the little bridge over the river. There were willows by the water and unkempt meadow that didn't look too soft or wet. I was all for trying it, since the water was deep enough for fish, but Max said no he knew a better place.
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The aim of the investigation is to find the exact concentration of the cell sap of a potato. What is osmosis?Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a highly water concentrated
This proves that the cell saps concentration is somewhere between the distilled water and the glucose solution. Dilutions Concentration Volume of distilled water (mm) Volume of glucose solution (mm) Total (mm) 0M 20ml - 20ml 0.2M 16ml 4ml 20ml 0.4M 12ml 8ml 20ml 0.6M 8ml 12ml 20ml 0.8M 4ml 16ml 20ml 1.0M - 20ml 20ml This table shows me how much of both the 1M solution and distilled water I need to mix to create the dilutions in between to get the best results for my graph that I will do to display my data.
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Find the viscosity of water using a rigid glass tube (capillary). By further calculations, to find whether the flow of liquid is laminar or turbulent.
The volume here was kept constant, so that there were fewer errors in calculations. This was then repeated for another nine times, with varying heights of the water level on the funnel. Results Table 1: Results obtained in the experiment. Height, h (m) Change in Pressure, ?P (Pa) Volume, v(cm3) Time, t (s) Flow Rate,Q (m3s-1) Viscosity, ? 0.519 5091.39 25.0 25.93 9.6413E-07 8.4585E-04 ? 0.567 5562.27 25.0 23.59 1.0598E-06 8.4069E-04 0.587 5758.47 25.0 22.91 1.0912E-06 8.4526E-04 0.605 5935.05 25.0 21.75 1.1494E-06 8.2707E-04 0.623 6111.63 25.0 20.47 1.2213E-06 8.0155E-04 * 0.671 6582.51 25.0 21.22 1.1781E-06 8.9494E-04 0.737 7229.97 25.0 19.34 1.2927E-06 8.9588E-04 0.785 7700.85 25.0 18.30 1.3661E-06 9.0291E-04 0.840 8240.40 25.0 17.65 1.4164E-06 9.3186E-04 0.974 9554.94 25.0 14.97 1.6700E-06 9.1644E-04 ?
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This report will focus on Inbev Company. This is where I spent my work experience. The company produces the largest amount of Stella in the world.
These main areas were important for the running and well being of the plant. The C.H.P which stands for combined heat and power turns the excess heat from the plant into electricity which can either be stored to run the plant or be sold on to the electricity companies. R.O stands for Reverse Osmosis. Reverse Osmosis takes all of the minerals out of the water; this means the brewery can put what ever minerals they want back into the water.
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As the guard cells become turgid they cause the stomata to open, thus allowing more gases to enter and leave the leaf. * Plasmolysis If a plant is not watered, water may leaves it by osmosis and cytoplasm may also shrink from cell wall. This process is called plasmolysis. Transpiration The xylem transports water and dissolves minerals from the roots to the leaves. They are 'sucked' up the xylem by a process called 'Transpiration'. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from inside the leaves to the surrounding air.
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Another Damage that the grips have caused is, Erosion, has caused the ditches to widen over the years it has been eating away at the walls of the grips, the soil has started to break up and fall off. 'The grips had seemed to be a good thing at the time' said one farmer. There was no chance of reversal it would be too expensive. Although the goverment put money towards the grips it would now cost at last twice as much because of the eroded material.
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Research Question:How will music affect the growth of a plant BackgroundPlant growth is the development of seeds of a plant, which
After they have grown a little and the stem has begun to emerge from within the cotyledons of the bean, they are then separated, and one plant sits in the peace and quiet as a control while the other is subjected to some serious loud music. If conditions are right, the music should stimulate the plants growth. Hypothesis If a pinto bean sprout (Phaseolus vulgaris) plant is grown in a quiet area and another pinto bean sprout is grown in an area with loud music playing, the plant in the area with music will grow to be much larger.
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GAS EXCHANGE IN DICOT PLANTS In order to carry on photosynthesis, plant need a supply of carbon dioxide and also a means of disposing
The distance that gases must diffuse in even a large plant is not great. Each living cell in the plant is located close to the surface. While obvious for leaves, it is also true for stems. The only living cells in the stem are organized in thin layers just beneath the bark. The cells in the interior are dead and serve only to provide mechanical support. Most of the living cells in a plant have at least part of their surface exposed to air.
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Primary and Secondary Pollutants:When fuels are burnt in both car exhausts and power stations primary pollutants are released into the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides are all primary pollutants produced when coal is burnt. When the coal burns the sulphur compounds found in all living organisms are converted to oxides of sulphur, these oxides of sulphur can cause serious environmental damage if they get into the atmosphere. The amount of sulphur in coal depends on the types of organisms from which the coal was originally formed. What are the best conditions for forming photochemical smog? Nitrogen oxides are formed when nitrogen and oxygen in air react together and carbon dioxide is formed when oxygen and fuel react.
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In bright light oxygen is given out and carbon dioxide made from the plant respiring is taken in to use with photosynthesis. So the more light (higher the light intensity) the faster the rate of photosynthesis, however there are a few limiting factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis not just light intensity. Blackman's sates that "The least available factor will be the limiting factor" so light intensity, amount and concentration of carbon dioxide and temperature can all be limiting factors in the process of photosynthesis.
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My aim is to find out what the best design is for a water wheel. The factors that will affect what happens in my investigation are; Surface area of the blades, which are on the wheelSize of those bladesAmount of water used
I think this because the greater the mass of water, the greater the effect that gravity will have upon the wheel. This will increase the speed of the wheel. The speed will stabilise when the wheel reaches its optimum design speed due to the size, shape and angle of the blades. Apparatus: Spindle 2 Supports String Mass Hanger Plastic blades Pre-made water wheel Masses Water (ml) Water tray To set up my investigation, I attached the blades to the water wheel, which was attached to 2 supports.
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With no crops for food, people have to go get food from somewhere else, otherwise they would starve and die. Moreover, in poorer countries like Africa, drought brings disease, famine, and deaths. Famine often comes about when there is a long period of drought. It happens when a large number of people do not have enough to eat, since the hot sun kills the crops and dries up the water supplies. Animals that are kept for meat and milk die from starvation.
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An example of this is sodium chloride in water. Water is a good solvent for many substances. Ionic solids, like salt and polar molecules, such as sugar and amino acids, readily dissolve in it. Ionic compounds dissolve in water with a shell of orientated water molecules around each ion. Whereas soluble organic molecules, like sugars, dissolve in water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and the slightly charged hydroxyl groups in these organic molecules. The only small biological molecules that are hydrophobic (do not dissolve in water)
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Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane
Pure water has a molecular weight of 18 grams/mole, so its concentration is approximately 55 Molar. Solutes take up space that would otherwise have been occupied by water in a solution, and they also associate with a number of the water molecules, further lowering its activity (effective concentration). When you put an animal or plant cell into a liquid containing water one of three things will happen: 1 If the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than the cell (a very dilute solution)
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DIARRHOEA, DIGESTION AND DEHYDRATIONDiarrhoea is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent and watery, chunky, or loose bowel
Diarrhoea is not normal because when it prevents the digestive system from absorbing the essential salts, nutrients and water from the food being eaten; instead they are lost from the body as runny or watery bowel motion.
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There was a high-pitched clang as the diver entered the steel cage, which would protect him against the sharks he had come to appreciate. You could feel the tension in the air. It was the diver's second dive. You can see that he did not look confident.
Every now and then his eyes would move, as if he had seen something in the water. All that he saw though were reflections from the mirror like surface of the water. The other divers on the boat worked frantically preparing equipment. They were bringing about all kinds of noises. The sounds all going through the head of the diver in the cage. This was adding to his fear. He then caught a foul stench of rotting fish and meat, which was to be fed to the sharks. It was dropped in the water creating a pool of red on the surface.
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To peel the epidermis layer from underneath of the plant leaf and count the average distance between the stomata.
Equipment * Microscope - to look at the peeled layer * Leaf - to get the lower epidermis layer from it * Nail Varnish - to make the lower epidermis layer stick to it * Tweezers - to peel off the lower epidermis layer with them * Slides and cover slips - to make the slide for the microscope * Glycerol - to keep air bubbles out of the slides * Pipette - to apply the glycerol to the slide *
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Ian's primary stroke is Freestyle, an event in which he excels, I will now explain the aspects of the skills which are used by Ian and other elite performers to achieve maximum efficiency in the water.
Body Position- it is very important that the body is in the correct position in the water. The water level is at the forehead, with the body flat and streamlined but low enough in the water to give an efficient kick. It is important that a longitudinal roll can be achieved so that the hand can sink to "catch" the water and the head may be turned to breathe. The roll should be equal on both sides, this can be achieved by bilateral breathing (breathing to both sides).
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