• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Globalisation and Transnational Terrorism

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Some critics suggest that globalisation has exacerbated the problem of transnational terrorism. Giving suitable examples, explain why this might be so. Globalisation has opened borders, facilitated the transition of goods, services, populations, money, communications and ideas. While each of these transitions has benefits, each of them likewise has a darker side that if exploited can exacerbate problems such as transnational terrorism. There are four primary examples of how globalisation has exacerbated transnational terrorism. These being; globalisation facilitates acts of transnational terrorism; globalisation acts as a raison d'etre for some transnational terrorist groups (TNTG) and that cultural resistance to the effects of globalisation may exacerbate transnational terrorism; that the development of new minorities increases the recruitment pool and lastly that in some cases globalisation had led to a weakening of controls previous enjoyed by the state. By defining transnational terrorism and investigating these four factors, this paper intends to outline how globalisation has exacerbated the issue of transnational terrorism. Transnational terrorism is unlike past incarnations of political violence, exhibiting a networked and distributed organisational structure, having no single state affiliation, the ability to operate beyond the borders of a home base state or location and the ability to utilise mass communications and WMDs.1The typology of transnational terrorist groups (TNTG) has changed over decades, passing through left wing extremists (19602-1980s), through Palestinian and other ethno nationalist affiliated groups (1990s) and now in this new century it is often defined as being Islamic based, belonging to the ontology of radical organisations such as Al Qaeda (AQ) and its affiliates.2 Both the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Department of Homeland Security link the definition of transnational terrorism with the Salafist organisations exemplified by AQ.3 Lutz and Lutz note it may be that pressures derived from globalisation may have lead to a response manifested by a growth in religious extremism4. This may explain why so many TNTG have a religious ontology. ...read more.

Middle

Robb cites a link between globalisation and reduction in state's control, caused by the emergence of stronger non-state actors such as TNTG, combined with a loss of control over "borders, economies, finances, people and communications."43 Resultantly, states can experience a growth in TNTG operating within their states or may find themselves easier prey due to laxity in security measures. While this will affect Non-Integrating states more that Core states, the West may find its own security is affected by the destabilisation of these states, and by attacks on Western infrastructure directed from within these weakened states. Regardless of globalisation's ability to weaken the state, the simple fact remains that by simply existing in a globalised world the actions of states, both at home and abroad, now have far more repercussions for security than before. The states susceptibility to terrorism is determined not just by how it treats its citizens at home but by its actions abroad. When such actions lack international legitimacy and local populations perceive them as unjust, radical groups come to see terrorism as an appropriate response.44 In an interconnected world states actions in countering terror may lead to a greater number of disaffiliated actors who turn to terrorism as a means of reprisal. These acts of violence may lead to a bottom up emaculation of the state as citizens see a state unable to exercise control over TNTG.45 Loss of state's control may also be a top down shift as states lose authority to act as singular entities in an increasingly integrated world of global governance where the actions of states have interconnected repercussions on the economies and social make up of other states. Thus these actions, once permissible as singular acts must now be enacted with the cooperation of other states or with an understanding of spill over. Like-wise some larger states have the ability to coerce other states into actions that may exacerbate terrorism. ...read more.

Conclusion

Capra, "Trying to Understand - A Systematic Analysis of International Terrorism" (2001) www.freedom-here-and-now.com/capra.html Accessed July 2009 A. Cronin, "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism" International Security 27(3) (2002/2003): 9. 24 Robert Kaplan cited in I. Roxborough "The New American Warriors" Theoria, 109, (2006): .53 25 S Makinda, 'Global Governance and Terrorism', Global Change, Peace & Security, 15:1(2003) 57 26 Gotchev, 106-107 27 J. Post, "Psychology", in Addressing the Causes of Terrorism, ed. P R Neumann, Club De Madrid, International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, (ESC/Scholz and Friends , Madrid, Spain 2005): Vol 1. 10 Crenshaw, 18 Barnett, 84 28 Gurr. 22 D. Barno "Challenges in Fighting a Global Insurgency -United States Military Capability in Wars", Parameters 36(2), , (2006):20. 29 K. Campbell, "Globalization's First war?" The Washington Quarterly, 25(1) (2002):.8. Rosenthal,.5 30 M. Crenshaw, "Political explanations" in Addressing the Causes of Terrorism, ed. P R Neumann, Club De Madrid, International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, (ESC/Scholz and Friends , Madrid, Spain 2005): Vol 1. 14 L, Weinberg, "Democracy and terrorism" in The Roots of Terrorism, ed L Richardson, (New York, NT, Routledge, 2006):54 31 Weinberg, 52 32 Gurr, 19 33 Gotchev, 107 34 Gurr, 19 35 Lutz, 147 36 A. Cureil & B. Hoffman & W. Ruseau & D. Zimmermann, "The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism" A Joint Conference by the RAND Corporation and the Centre for Security Studies, and ETH Zurich, www.rand.com Accessed July 2009 B. Hoffman, "The Global Threat: Is Al Qaeda on the Run or on the March?" Middle East Policy, 14(2) (2007):46- 49. Weinberg, 52 37 Crenshaw,.20 38M. Cetron, "Defeating terrorism: is it possible? Is it probable?" The Futurist, 41(3) (2007): 18. 39 Gotchev, 110-111 40 Kaplan R and Freidman T, " States of Discord", Foreign Policy (002):4-70 41 M, Juergensmeyer, " Religion as a Cause of Terrorism", in The Roots of Terrorism, ed L Richardson, (New York, NT, Routledge, 2006):140 42 Gurr, 22 -23 Gotchev, 109 43 Robb ,7 44 Crenshaw,15 45 S. Lee, "International Governance and the Fight Against Terrorism", Ethics and International Affairs, 20(2), (2006):241. 46 Lee 241 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Criminology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Criminology essays

  1. Domestic violence. The following essay will concentrate on patriarchal-terrorism (Gilchrist et al. 2004) meaning ...

    Social information processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. How do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. Child Development, 67, 1004-1014. Cruz, J.M. and Firestone, J.M. (1998). Exploring Violence and Abuse in gay Male Relationships. Violence and Victims, 13, 159-173.

  2. Can terrorism ever be stopped? The existence of terrorism is a threat to civilization ...

    them the upper hand scenario.Meaning the over reaction of the press, public and governments have to stop exploiting terrorist's that helps them kill innocent people for gaining a title. The only thing that people gain from such an act is capturing attention from the media so they are ahead of the game.

  1. The Threat of Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Weapons and Terrorism.

    Yield is measured in terms of the amount of TNT that would be needed to product the same amount of energy. The terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 have provided a wake-up call for facing the threat of nuclear terrorism. The nuclear control institute has been analyzing the risks of nuclear terrorism

  2. Anthropology and its Uses in Single Body and Mass Fatality Cases

    From a fractured wrists and notes made at the time of the disappearance, anthropologists were able to match the skeleton to the victim, and his father was convicted of his murder (For the history of anthropology in the UK and more detail on the two cases above, please see Appendix 2).

  1. Forensic Science. The first role of the ballistic expert is to ensure that the ...

    Along with the ballistic evidence mentioned beforehand, presumptive tests for blood should be carried out on the bullets to find out which passed fatally through the victim and trajectory markers can be used to identify where the offenders and the victim were positioned.

  2. Is the development of an international norm of humanitarian intervention sufficient in preventing genocide ...

    Liberalists such as John Stuart Mills (1973) believe that democratic states are established by the informed consent and wishes of its citizen and in order to establish such democracy the locals should struggle for it. The oppressed should overthrow the tyrant governments and not the outsiders. He further on argues that those who do intervene will find

  1. How are legal and illegal opium markets affected by global relations?

    This has contributed to the destruction of the Afghanistan opium crops by not allowing it to be incorporated into the global market. This is mainly because they worry it would force the market price of opium down then in turn lowering profits.

  2. Perceptions of wrongful convictions amongst Americans working in the criminal justice system.

    the conviction of certain innocent individuals for crimes they did not commit. There is increasing evidence that criminal justice professionals, 14 in their zeal to crack down and get-tough on crime, are, in a rush to judgment, dragging into the system increasing numbers of innocent individuals who are being arrested, convicted, and sentenced to prison (sometimes death row)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work