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Globalisation and Transnational Terrorism

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Some critics suggest that globalisation has exacerbated the problem of transnational terrorism. Giving suitable examples, explain why this might be so. Globalisation has opened borders, facilitated the transition of goods, services, populations, money, communications and ideas. While each of these transitions has benefits, each of them likewise has a darker side that if exploited can exacerbate problems such as transnational terrorism. There are four primary examples of how globalisation has exacerbated transnational terrorism. These being; globalisation facilitates acts of transnational terrorism; globalisation acts as a raison d'etre for some transnational terrorist groups (TNTG) and that cultural resistance to the effects of globalisation may exacerbate transnational terrorism; that the development of new minorities increases the recruitment pool and lastly that in some cases globalisation had led to a weakening of controls previous enjoyed by the state. By defining transnational terrorism and investigating these four factors, this paper intends to outline how globalisation has exacerbated the issue of transnational terrorism. Transnational terrorism is unlike past incarnations of political violence, exhibiting a networked and distributed organisational structure, having no single state affiliation, the ability to operate beyond the borders of a home base state or location and the ability to utilise mass communications and WMDs.1The typology of transnational terrorist groups (TNTG) has changed over decades, passing through left wing extremists (19602-1980s), through Palestinian and other ethno nationalist affiliated groups (1990s) and now in this new century it is often defined as being Islamic based, belonging to the ontology of radical organisations such as Al Qaeda (AQ) and its affiliates.2 Both the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Department of Homeland Security link the definition of transnational terrorism with the Salafist organisations exemplified by AQ.3 Lutz and Lutz note it may be that pressures derived from globalisation may have lead to a response manifested by a growth in religious extremism4. This may explain why so many TNTG have a religious ontology. ...read more.


Robb cites a link between globalisation and reduction in state's control, caused by the emergence of stronger non-state actors such as TNTG, combined with a loss of control over "borders, economies, finances, people and communications."43 Resultantly, states can experience a growth in TNTG operating within their states or may find themselves easier prey due to laxity in security measures. While this will affect Non-Integrating states more that Core states, the West may find its own security is affected by the destabilisation of these states, and by attacks on Western infrastructure directed from within these weakened states. Regardless of globalisation's ability to weaken the state, the simple fact remains that by simply existing in a globalised world the actions of states, both at home and abroad, now have far more repercussions for security than before. The states susceptibility to terrorism is determined not just by how it treats its citizens at home but by its actions abroad. When such actions lack international legitimacy and local populations perceive them as unjust, radical groups come to see terrorism as an appropriate response.44 In an interconnected world states actions in countering terror may lead to a greater number of disaffiliated actors who turn to terrorism as a means of reprisal. These acts of violence may lead to a bottom up emaculation of the state as citizens see a state unable to exercise control over TNTG.45 Loss of state's control may also be a top down shift as states lose authority to act as singular entities in an increasingly integrated world of global governance where the actions of states have interconnected repercussions on the economies and social make up of other states. Thus these actions, once permissible as singular acts must now be enacted with the cooperation of other states or with an understanding of spill over. Like-wise some larger states have the ability to coerce other states into actions that may exacerbate terrorism. ...read more.


Capra, "Trying to Understand - A Systematic Analysis of International Terrorism" (2001) www.freedom-here-and-now.com/capra.html Accessed July 2009 A. Cronin, "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism" International Security 27(3) (2002/2003): 9. 24 Robert Kaplan cited in I. Roxborough "The New American Warriors" Theoria, 109, (2006): .53 25 S Makinda, 'Global Governance and Terrorism', Global Change, Peace & Security, 15:1(2003) 57 26 Gotchev, 106-107 27 J. Post, "Psychology", in Addressing the Causes of Terrorism, ed. P R Neumann, Club De Madrid, International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, (ESC/Scholz and Friends , Madrid, Spain 2005): Vol 1. 10 Crenshaw, 18 Barnett, 84 28 Gurr. 22 D. Barno "Challenges in Fighting a Global Insurgency -United States Military Capability in Wars", Parameters 36(2), , (2006):20. 29 K. Campbell, "Globalization's First war?" The Washington Quarterly, 25(1) (2002):.8. Rosenthal,.5 30 M. Crenshaw, "Political explanations" in Addressing the Causes of Terrorism, ed. P R Neumann, Club De Madrid, International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, (ESC/Scholz and Friends , Madrid, Spain 2005): Vol 1. 14 L, Weinberg, "Democracy and terrorism" in The Roots of Terrorism, ed L Richardson, (New York, NT, Routledge, 2006):54 31 Weinberg, 52 32 Gurr, 19 33 Gotchev, 107 34 Gurr, 19 35 Lutz, 147 36 A. Cureil & B. Hoffman & W. Ruseau & D. Zimmermann, "The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism" A Joint Conference by the RAND Corporation and the Centre for Security Studies, and ETH Zurich, www.rand.com Accessed July 2009 B. Hoffman, "The Global Threat: Is Al Qaeda on the Run or on the March?" Middle East Policy, 14(2) (2007):46- 49. Weinberg, 52 37 Crenshaw,.20 38M. Cetron, "Defeating terrorism: is it possible? Is it probable?" The Futurist, 41(3) (2007): 18. 39 Gotchev, 110-111 40 Kaplan R and Freidman T, " States of Discord", Foreign Policy (002):4-70 41 M, Juergensmeyer, " Religion as a Cause of Terrorism", in The Roots of Terrorism, ed L Richardson, (New York, NT, Routledge, 2006):140 42 Gurr, 22 -23 Gotchev, 109 43 Robb ,7 44 Crenshaw,15 45 S. Lee, "International Governance and the Fight Against Terrorism", Ethics and International Affairs, 20(2), (2006):241. 46 Lee 241 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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