To what extent to physiological factors explain why people become criminals?
To what extent to physiological factors explain why people become criminals? In this essay the extent to which physiological factors influence peoples behaviour, and primarily whether or not they will become criminals, will be discussed. This area is greatly influential within the nature/nurture debate, which is a core debate in psychology, as it looks at whether behaviour is influenced by genetics more than by the environment or whether it is the other way around. This essay will look at what effect different genetic influences can do to a person. It is also important to point out that the discussion will focus on physiological (or biological) factors of the body and not at mental aspects of the brain. It will look at issues including inherited characteristics and twins. The first item that would be looked at when discussing physiological factors is a persons genetic factors. The first person to look at why criminals are criminals was Lambroso (1876) and he thought the origins of criminality were gene based. Schafer (1976) credited Lombroso as the father of criminality as he was the first person to really look into the reasons for being a criminal. He thought that certain criminals could be identified by body shape and facial characteristics, for instance he thought that all sex offenders had big lips and protruding ears. He originally suggested that criminals were "born
Implications of Biometric Technology
Q6. Implications of biometrics in late modernity. Biometric technology has many implications for society. Such technology can be used for a number of purposes, predominantly biometric practises fall into one of two categories: identification and/or security. In a society in which crime is a common occurrence any system which claims to minimise identity fraud and terrorism without infringing on the privacy of the individual is of great interest to many organisations. However, can biometric technology do all of which it claims to do and how does that impact on society? This essay attempts to give a brief overview of how biometric technology can minimise identity fraud and terrorism while analysing its claims of upholding citizens' security and privacy. Furthermore, such identification technology could be extended to apply in other areas such as smuggling; of people and drugs as well as in insurance and taxation fraud. Biometric surveillance is the detection, identification, and tracking of individuals based upon unique physical characteristics or attributes (Peterson, 2007: 733). In this essay it is used as a general term for technologies that permit matches between a 'live' digital image of a part of the body and a previously recorded image of the same part, usually indexed to personal or financial information with information stored in a computer database (Alterman, 2003:
Critically analyse the media(TM)s role in shaping public perceptions of crime(TM)
'Critically analyse the media's role in shaping public perceptions of crime' (1870 Words) Criminology and Criminal Justice The media's role in society is to inform people about everyday life through communications such as Television and newspapers. The information in which these communications display can be very diverse in their opinions about society, such as crime. This assignment will look in detail about the way in which media can influence public perceptions on crime and whether the information given is actually accurate in relation to official statistics specified by the government. This will include the analysis of crime stories from two different newspapers to learn the extent in which these newspapers portray different information about crime. There have been many cases in history in which the media has controlled people's views on society. For example Hitler was aware of the significance of good propaganda through media, in which he was able to take over power with the mass support of the people. The present day is the same. What people read in newspapers contributes to their views, such as crime, but realistically may not be true. For example the British Crime Survey asked respondents about their perceptions of how the level of crime was in the country as a whole. It showed that around "two-thirds (65%) of people thought crime in the country
The place of the public police is becoming less important in view of the variety of ways in which public and community security is exercised in contemporary society. Discuss
'The place of the public police is becoming less important in view of the variety of ways in which public and community security is exercised in contemporary society. Discuss' Kersty Martin B00472666 Criminology and Criminal Justice The term Police refers to a governmental organisation charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order in society. They are given the power to enforce the law, protect the people, property and control civil unrest. The carrying out of these assigned functions is known as policing. In order to carry out these functions effectively, the Police are empowered to use reasonable force to enforce the law especially when they meet resistance. Since they are state organisations, the Police are usually empowered through training in the use of combat methods, arms and hi tech communication and transport equipment. The term derives from the French word Polis which means polite and the Latin term Politia which refers to Public Administration (Walker, 1977). In contemporary society, Police play an important role in primarily maintaining law and order but they have also been assigned other duties including controlling the flow of persons at disaster sites and carrying out first aid. Another change has come about because of the fact the citizens have over the years taken the responsibility of ensuring their own security through private security
Outline some of the most important critiques of 'Malestream' criminology.
Outline some of the most important critiques of 'Malestream' criminology: By Phil Timmes Criminology is defined by Nigel Walker as "a generic name for a group of closely allied subjects: the study and explanation of lawbreaking; formal and informal ways in which societies deal with it; and the nature and needs of its victims." ( Outhwaite & Bottomore 1994) To apply a feminist model that encompasses all the aspects listed here has been achieved to the extent that female writers have addressed each section of criminology as defined by Walker. From the late 1960s onwards, there has been a growing number of research on women & crime, while acknowledging the very important research that has been undertaken in this area, this essay will argue that mainstream criminology has continued to be 'malestream'. Women do not represent a large proportion of the total of offenders involved with the criminal justice system has been well documented over the years (Heidensohn 1985; Williams 1991; Lombroso 1968). In 1993, there were 1,560 women in custody in England and Wales compared to 43,005 men, a proportion of about 4%. Eaton maintains that because "the majority of women are never involved, personally, with the formal agents of law enforcement." (Eaton 1986) together with the small numbers of women who do become involved with the criminal justice system, has led to the study of women
This essay aims to answer whether or not Honour killings are being condoned by the state and also the society. This essay will also look at different definitions of the meaning of 'honour killing in the UK and Pakistan
Are 'Honour Killings' considered immoral or wrong in a tolerant way, without being criticized by the state and society? Compare your evidence with Pakistan's Honour killings situation. This essay aims to answer whether or not Honour killings are being condoned by the state and also the society. This essay will also look at different definitions of the meaning of 'honour killing' in the UK and Pakistan ; it will then go on to establish the major points which are taken into account as to why honour killings take place and also to what extent do these honour crimes occur. In order to answer the question accurately, the essay will go on to expand on the accurate statistics of the honour crime rate and take a wider look at whether it is increasing or decreasing. The main body and the focal point of the essay is to see what sort of effect does the state has on these crimes and what the state is doing to protect the mishap happening in society. The essay will also go on to develop its argument on whether the UK state has severed the punishment or whether it isn't given that much of an importance today. Different data will be measured and compared with the situation in Pakistan to give a realistic view of the occurring of these homicides. It will go on to reveal various different points when comparing the statistics rate of United Kingdom honour crimes with Pakistan honour crime in
Article Review. The Carceral in Foucaults Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison, a book by Michel Foucault, first published in 1975, then later edited in English in 1977 still continues to rivet attention 35 years after it was written.
Article Review Foucault, M. (1977), "The Carceral", in Foucault, M. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Penguin Books: London. pp. 293-308. "The Carceral" in Foucault's Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison, a book by Michel Foucault, first published in 1975, then later edited in English in 1977 still continues to rivet attention 35 years after it was written. It is evident to believe that it is still revolutionary in its findings. Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, sociologist and historian. The professor of history and systems of social thought at college de France, Foucault is widely recognised as a leading social theorist. Discipline and Punish continues to provide insights and suggested solutions that appear in the penal system. Foucault's point is to show how significantly the penal system changed in 80 years and details the history of the French penal system with the interpretation of historical events identifying the domination of human spirits. He argues, in the later part of the 18th century the focus of punishment began to shift from the body to the soul or mind of the offender to discipline them. He described discipline as a type of power. Prisons became more than just places where liberty was deprived. Furthermore, the closing section of the book is the main focus of my review and is entitled, simply, "The carceral". He
Crime is a Social Construct. Discuss in relation to two criminological theories.
Crime is a social construct.' Analyse and discuss this statement with reference to any TWO criminological theories. In order to examine the above we must ask ourselves the question 'what is crime? The Cambridge dictionary definition of crime states that is an 'illegal act' or 'something against the law'. This essays aims to delve beyond the illegal act itself and consider the laws and subsequent crime that is controlled and constructed by society. The paper will consider both the Internationalist theory alongside that of the rational choice theory in considering the above. As mentioned above in order for society to recognise and record a crime an illegal act will have taken place. This act will have contravened a law created by the law makers of that society. The British legal system is ever evolving and it seems that new laws are brought about every week, with the introduction of new laws so there is an introduction of new crimes and vice versa. Laws are equally abolished over time leading to the decrimilisation of certain acts. Take for example marital rape, up until recently it was perfectly legal to rape your wife, this all changed in 1991when the law was abolished and husbands could be prosecuted for raping their wives (Rapecrisis). Another example is that of homosexual relationships, the law changed in 1967 making homosexual relationships lawful and thus non
Is the uncertainty about the deterrent effects of capital punishment an important factor to consider and is this adequately addressed by the theories you have chosen?
Punishment 2007 (Take home exam) Can capital punishment be justified? Outline a response to this question based upon at least two philosophical theories outlined by Cavadino and Dignan or in your lecture notes. Is the uncertainty about the deterrent effects of capital punishment an important factor to consider and is this adequately addressed by the theories you have chosen? Murder is the unlawful killing of another human being with an intentional or criminal intent as defined in section 18 of the Crimes Act 1900 (Austlii 2007: Crimes Act 1900). In modern society, atrocious crimes are being committed daily and many believe that those who commit them deserve one fate: death. Capital punishment, the death penalty, is the maximum sentence used in punishing people who kill another human being - and is a very controversial method of punishment. Australia has signed the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which commits Australia to the eradication of the death penalty (Barry 1968). Furthermore, the Death Penalty Abolition Act (1973) of the Commonwealth provides the legislative foundation for its obliteration, with Section 4 stating 'A person is not liable to the punishment of death for any offence'. However, is this form of punishment justifiable? (Austlii 2007: Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973). Having this national and
Fibre evidence results and discussion
Section A . The evidence shows that there is 2-way transfer. Fibres matching the victims clothing (except the halter-top) were found on the suspects clothing and in the car. Also the victim had a pill of fibres from the suspects underpants in her knickers. The victim had fibres from the vehicle seats on her clothing. Even though there were small amounts of fibres found on suspect/victim/vehicle these are significant. It doesn't mention how long later the suspect (and his car) was arrested, and the first hour is the most important where over 50% of the initial fibres transferred is lost. So finding 22 on the suspect and 33 on the passenger seat is quite good. There were no fibres found from the victim's halter-top - due to her shirt being worn over the top, which if fastened explains why no transfer as no contact. It was unusual that no fibres were found from the suspects T-shirt - could have been taken off or covered with another item of clothing. There was a very small amount of transfer from the suspect to the victim. The pill of purple cotton fibres found from the suspect's underwear was the only transfer from the suspect, which I would have expected more. There were 7 vehicle fibres transferred to the victims clothing which isn't a lot compared to the amount of fibres found on the passenger seat. Polyester fibres from the vehicle seat must have been transferred at low