- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
University Degree: International Relations
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
This essay will examine the evolution of the ASEAN organization and whether it has effectively managed regional security and economic relations.
was established in 1994. The forum includes twenty-seven countries with ten of these being ASEAN members. The latter portion of the 1990s proved to be quite decisive in terms of gaining regional stability and prospects for economic growth with the introduction of Vietnam in 1995, Laos and Myammar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. This was further compounded with the 1997 ASEAN plus three meeting and the first ASEAN-China Summit. The primary objectives for ASEAN remain the same. The ASEAN members cite terrorism as a source for instability in the region along with China as is exemplified through the South China Sea dispute.
- Word count: 2060
The state of Americas economy is due primarily to free trade throughout the world, but is free trade truly helping America and its citizens, or has it given opposing countries the upper hand? (Free Trade Area)
In their, minds it was be a poor decision that would give away the United States' job opportunities to other countries whose citizens would work for lower wages ("Fast-Track"). Americans are known for their values and working hard to earn every penny that they have, and this agreement was not in support of their protectionism. In American citizens' minds, it takes away their dignity ("Protectionism"). Protectionism is something that is not found too often in America today. It is the frame of mind that a country should not be completely reliant on other areas for items of everyday need.
- Word count: 1816
Present an overview of the evolution of the human security concept and its main components 2) Critiques and challenges of the human security concept 3) To analyze how human security relates to international in general and human rights in particular 2. Evolution of Human Security Concept Many international actors, organizations and academics have been debating the meaning of security. According to Macfarlane, security itself is an issue that always has been considered a state matter, both as the subject in charge of providing it to the persons under its jurisdiction, as well as the object worthy of protection and regulation through laws and policies.
- Word count: 3150
HIV Aids and Human Security Many scholars argue that, one way in which HIV/AIDS is already having important security ramifications, and will continue to do so for many years to come, is within the broader framework of 'human security'. The UN Development Program in its 1994 Human Development Report, seeks to redress the perceived imbalance in security thinking that has predominated over past decades, and wishes to refocus its attention on the needs and welfare of individuals, rather than just that of states and territories.(Thomas, 2000)
- Word count: 2548
The impact of public opinion on Foreign Policy and the role of media as a linking mechanism - a US perspective
Therefore, the central aims of this essay are to: 1) Present the principle of tipping point and the most sensible issues provoking the U.S. public opinion. an overview of the evolution of the public opinion. 2) Analyze the responsiveness to public opinion and links policy- opinion 3) Analyze how does the media affect the public opinion and through it the foreign policy. 2. The principle of the tipping point and the main issues provoking the U.S. public opinion As already discussed in the essay the question of how much influence public opinion has on foreign policy has long been a matter of controversy.
- Word count: 3358
Humanitarian intervention is a concept adopted by nations to allow for the military intervention in sovereign countries that have grossly violated human rights. This concept would seem to contradict the notion of state sovereignty and some scholars have g
Along these definitions, the use of humanitarian intervention seems impermissible. But when you introduce the notion of individual sovereignty, as opposed to state sovereignty, the issue becomes a subject of debate. This paper seeks to explore whether, when a government fails to protect the rights of its citizens, the practice of humanitarian intervention is compatible with an international system that is based on the principle of state sovereignty. Sovereignty and Human Rights It is the duty of the state to protect the sovereignty of the individual. This is usually manifested by the safeguarding of the individual rights of its citizens as enshrined in the constitution of the state.
- Word count: 2315
Although, he had the desire to make Soviet economy and state more efficient and productive, it proved to be the internal problems and Gorbachev's reforms that were baleful for Soviet Union's viability (Robinson, 1992, p. 425). By 1987, the government acknowledged the existence of major problems caused, not by some sort of financial obstacles, but linked to a deeper ideological, cultural and social crisis (Battle, 1998, p.370). It became evident that a radical change was required. Therefore, in the second half of 1980s Gorbachev began to talk about implementing a concept of 'new thinking' in Soviet's system (Bisley, 2004, p.76).
- Word count: 2469
One might think that spatial aspects have lost importance nowadays and can be ignored in favour of other aspects, but the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy still used this argument in 2007 to block further progress of the accession discussions.3 Two other essentialist arguments that are often cited are Turkey's history and its culture which is said to be inherently different from the ones of the EU member states. These arguments are based on the Eurocentric assumption that Europe shares a common history in cultural, social and historical terms while Turkey was not part of this experience.4 The assumption refers to
- Word count: 1881
The Security Dilemma. by evaluating two other schools of international relations theoryin this case, Liberal Institutionalism and The Democratic Peace Theoryone came come to a more informed understanding of ways to mitigat
These reciprocated actions result in tensions that can lead to conflict, even if neither of the nations intended to intimidate the other. Because of this, the Security Dilemma implies that a state cannot increase its national security--whether by increasing its military force, or developing atomic weaponry--without offending other nations: other nations will, by default, feel threatened and counter the actions. The reason for the occurrence of the Security Dilemma is because in an anarchical system, states will pursue "self-help," to guarantee their survival.
- Word count: 1009
What do you understand by the term globalization? Has the recent economic recession led to de-globalization?
However, it has not been known under its definitions nowadays until the 1980s (Economist 2009). According to Kenneth Waltz (2000: 47), 'globalization is the fad of the 1990, and globalization is made in America.' The Americanization of human population is marked by enlarging the global scales in terms of goods distribution, capital flow and free movement of workers. In other words, 'economic interests dominate and markets begin to supplant politics at home and abroad' (Waltz 2000: 46). However, Waltz (2000: 49)
- Word count: 2495
International cooperation against drugs. We will see at first what are the international organizations involved in anti-drug fight, then we will look at ways and policies used to pursue their actions and especially study the case of the FTAA. Finally, we
I based my analysis on the study of monographs, articles in periodicals, government documents and international organizations. We will see at first what are the international organizations involved in anti-drug fight, then we will look at ways and policies used to pursue their actions and especially study the case of the FTAA. Finally, we will see to what extent these policies are effective and the many debates they provoke. Table of content I- The institutional context of the anti-drug fight 1. Institutions 2. Game players and power games II- Targeted policies 1. Politico-administrative program of public policy on drugs 2.
- Word count: 5902
Lastly, this essay will reason that these challenges are threatening different elements of sovereignty, arguing their relative significance. Due to reason of space and the vastness and controversy of this essay topic, limitations are inevitable. The essay is majorly dealing with contemporary issues related to the debate and the reader should bear in mind that the essay is elusive in the sense that arguments are only dealt with cursorily. The concept of sovereignty Before examining how state sovereignty may be withering away, it is imperative to understand how sovereignty has been traditionally conceived. Since the late 16th century sovereignty has been strictly linked to the concept of states and Bodin undeniably referred to the supreme authority conferred on the state.
- Word count: 2430
Secondly, it will be considered how globalization has lead to the emergence of international institutions and the need for such institutions to operate in an increasingly integrating economy. Thirdly, in purpose of arguing the dominate role of western ideology and western interests in international institutions, this essay will discuss the role of foremost the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The distributional role of multilateral economic institutions will be highlighted as well as the immense critique brought against them. Lastly, this essay will conclude international institutions to play an important role in the globalizing economy, however, not equally serving the world's states and peoples.
- Word count: 2574
These were: 1. Globalization as a cause and motivation for terror. 2. Cultural resistance to globalisation. 3. Globalisation fosters the development of new minorities. 4. Globalisation increases the opportunities for militant and terrorist groups. 5. Linkages develop between political and criminal networks. 6. Globalisation weakens the state. Using these six factors as well as information and evidence from other sources, this paper intends to outline how globalisation has contributed to the growth of terrorist activities. Globalization as a cause and motivation for terror The countries that have not integrated successfully into the new liberal global economy find a growth in inequalities and social polarization.
- Word count: 4392
As many scholars have said, the concept of security have been unfairly neglected, even in such an insecure period as the Cold War (Baldwin 1997, pp. 8-9). According to Baldwin (1997), security can be described as 'a low probability of damage to acquired values' (p. 13). He also argues that while trying to describe the concept of security, several things have to be specified: to whom security is addressed (e.g. individuals, the state, the international system); what values are secured (i.e.
- Word count: 3066
Governance and security in Northeast Asia. The purpose of this paper is to reveal new phenomena in security issue pertaining to the region of Northeast Asia, which relates to integration and fragmentation in Rosenaus terms. Integration will be
Although state actors are still dominating national and international security affairs, they no longer seem to be in a monopolistic position keeping out non-state actors. The purpose of this paper is to reveal new phenomena in security issue pertaining to the region of Northeast Asia, which relates to integration and fragmentation in Rosenau's terms. Integration will be focused on state-level while fragmentation will center on diffusion of actors in security governance. Although being trapped in the Cold War structure, new signs of international institutionalization and super/sub-national governance are witnessed.
- Word count: 4033
Does the war on terror require that we chose between protecting either national security or individual civil liberties?
This became more apparent after September 11, 2001 attacks, when legislation was passed in both the USA and UK as a preventative measure. Such legislation also includes the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 in the UK and the Patriot Act in the USA. Fenwick (2007, p. 129) gives a brief explanation of these pre-emptive measures in terms of our rights '' attention has turned to targeting possible terrorist suspects and curtailing their liberty in order to prevent terrorist activity before it can occur.''
- Word count: 1567
British women during the two World Wars were praised for their 'womanly and motherly' way of life. The propaganda of the Allies stressed the adoption, moreover the amplification, of linking "women with mothers and men with soldiers" (Grayzel, cited in Gullace, 2003: 142). Grayzel writes that placing the two genders into such normative categories conveniently dismisses other forms of gender stereotypes and subtly grants women an allowance to proceed with the jobs conventionally done by men, such as the factory work women had to take over for (Gullace, 2003: 142).
- Word count: 1940
How do liberals try to explain why democracies rarely fight each other, and which do you find most or least plausible?
2003, pp. 520-521). They do go to war against non-democracies and they are not less war-prone than them, but they almost never fight other democracies. The more democratic countries are, the more peaceful the international system will be. Therefore, the way to achieve global peace is democratisation (Kadera et al. 2003, p. 234). Democratic peace theorists list two reasons why the theory is right. Firstly, 'institutional constraints': the public opinion controlling actions of the government, checks and balances inside the government and 'shared commercial interests' (Doyle 1983b, p.
- Word count: 2556
I am going to present a few types of interventions and provide evidence that some of them are more effective than others. First of all, I anticipate that it is necessary to give a clear definition of the term 'conflict'. Conflict has been defined as following: 'an action-system is said to be in conflict if the system has two or more incompatible goal-states' (Galtung 1965, p. 348). In other words, the element that is essential in the outbreak of conflict is the knowledge which the involved sides have on a certain issue.
- Word count: 3097
Van Evera begins with an outline of the 'effects' of offense dominance and lists ten 'war-causing effects' that occur during offensive dominance. This is summarised later in the article in the form of a table which displays how all explanations conclude in war. These are 'opportunistic expansion', 'defensive expansion', 'fierce resistance to expansion by other states', 'moving first is more rewarding', 'windows are larger, and more dangerous', 'faits accomplis are more common and more dangerous', 'states negotiate less and reach fewer agreements', 'secrecy is more common and more dangerous', 'more intense arms racing', and 'offense grows even stronger' (Van Evera 1998 p12).
- Word count: 2374
Kurdish population with the intention of solving a longtime domestic conflict using different mediums than military violence: political, cultural, and economic reforms (Barkey). Furthermore, Erdogan's government extensively in favor of "market-friendly policies" increased the AK party's recognition (Barkey). The party in power, which suggested the changes in the constitution approved in September 2010, portrayed the repair as an effort to reinforce Turkey's vibrant and competitive democracy while clearing its way towards the most exclusive 27-nation club membership. Historically, Turkish foreign policy was always oriented westwards since Ataturk's dissolution of the Muslim caliphate, adoption of the Latin alphabet and institution of a democracy.
- Word count: 1792
Subsequently, the key assumptions of realist theory will be related to the invasion. After garnering support from Great Britain and other allies such as Australia and Poland, the USA invaded Iraq. 21 days later, it was declared that they had successfully toppled the evil dictatorship of Hussein. However, the war was in the media spotlight and the whole world was watching the USA by means of the news crews that were present in Iraq; no WMDs had been found - later it would be discovered that no WMDs would ever be found. It then became pertinent by political theorists to reassess the situation that had caused the invasion.
- Word count: 2146
As a foreword, due to length constraints this essay will attempt to avoid individual security and concentrate on national and international. The first major change that shall be discussed is the evolving agency of security in the contemporary world. Agency The traditional view in the study of security was that conflict took place between states exclusively, that the nation state and its military were the only actors on the world stage; this realist view has been under serious criticism since the end of the Cold War.
- Word count: 2845
If all states were democratic, would we ever go to war? A critical analysis of the democratic peace proposition.
Democracy by definition can be perceived as 'a process in which citizens freely exercise their political rights and reconcile interests without resort to violence' (Cortright, 2008, p. 233) and in this respect its basic ideology is rooted in cooperation and non violence as governments are prone 'externalise their domestic norms of conflict resolution' (Rosato, 2005), that is that if a state uses peaceful means to resolve internal political conflict then they are highly likely to utilise the same means with regards to international relations.
- Word count: 2763