Pakistan is in the grip of a serious energy crisis that is affecting all sectors of the economy and the various segments of the society. As the situation stands to-day, there are hardly any immediate solutions to resolve the issue.

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Crisis’ has been coined by a Greek word which means ‘decisive moment’. Crisis is declared when something has gone to a level where an action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown. Energy is essential for the maintenance and development of the quality of human life as well as for economic activities. To maintain accelerated growth momentum, the economy needs reliable, uninterrupted and affordable supply of energy. Pakistan is in the grip of a serious energy crisis that is affecting all sectors of the economy and the various segments of the society. As the situation stands to-day, there are hardly any immediate solutions to resolve the issue. A change of attitude and a change of life style is needed at the national level which should be triggered by the ruling elite and followed by all segments of the society that have access to electricity. At best there could be some short and long-term solutions to the crisis but they need immediate planning and execution with an enormous investment.



Pakistan’s commercially exploitable energy resources consist of coal, gas, oil and hydropower,

and a large base of traditional fuels in the form of fuel wood, agricultural and animal wastes. Pakistan

does not have adequate energy reserves . Pakistan has to import large quantities of oil to meet its energy requirements

There has been consistent change in the Pakistan since 1997-97. To 2007-07The major energy change has taken place in the share of oil and gas consumption. Let’s have a look of each source, their demand, production and consumption.


Petroleum Products

During the first nine months of the outgoing fiscal year 2007-08, the consumption of petroleum products increased by 10.1 percent. The balance recoverable reserves of crude oil in

the country as on January 1st 2008 have been estimated at 339 million barrels. The average crude

oil production during July- March 2007-08 was 70,166 barrels per day as against 66,485 barrels per

day during the corresponding period of last year, showing an increase of 5.54 percentLet’s have a look on consumption and production of crude oil in Pakistan.

The production of crude oil is not sufficient as consumption. There is no prospect of Pakistan reaching self-sufficiency in oil.

Natural Gas

Natural gas has been gaining immense substance around the world due to its quality of being a cleaner fuel compared to coal and oil. Pakistan depends heavily on its natural gas reserves for different sectors of the economy. The Energy Commission estimated that Pakistan will be facing a shortfall in gas supplies rising from 1.4 Billion Cubic Feet (BCF) per day in 2012 to 2.7 BCF in 2015 and escalating to 10.3 BCF per day by the year 2025.

Hydro electric power:

Hydroelectric power generation is the cheapest way to produce power, he has omitted the factors that have played a key role in politicizing this issue and thereby harmed the national interest). Hydropower is providing about 30% of electricity in Pakistan. Although, Pakistan has relatively high endowment of hydropower potential, only 4,964 MW (17%) has been exploited and about 1,450 MW capacity is under construction.

Nuclear power:

In Pakistan, nuclear power makes a small contribution to total energy production and requirements, supplying only 2.34% of the country's electricity.  Total generating capacity is 20 GWe and in 2006, 98 billion kWh gross was produced, 37% of it from gas, 29% from oil.


Coal currently plays a minor role in Pakistan. s energy mix. However, Pakistan contains an estimated 3,362 million short tons (Mmst), sixth-largest in the world. Recently, the discovery of low-ash, low-sulfur lignite coal reserves in the Tharparkar (Thar) Desert in Sindh province, estimated at 1,929 Mmst, has increased both domestic and foreign development interest.



The world is facing a daunting task to meet the growing energy demand that is likely to double in the next twenty years. Pakistan is among those developing countries where the need to tackle the challenge is greatest.


Expected short fall:


One very important reason attributed to this energy shortage is the aging of the generating equipment which could not develop the electricity as per the design requirement. This is the responsibility of continuous updating the equipment and keeping the high standard of maintenance.

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Political instability has also played a role. Pakistan has seen quick changes in ruling governments over the past few decades. Each regime has proposed quick fixes to the problem but no comprehensive energy policy that provides a long term vision for energy production in Pakistan


Industry uses around 30.0 per cent of total power generated and around 45 per cent of total electricity generated is used for domestic consumption. Use of energy in old machines and lack of awareness of efficiently using it in industry and for domestic consumption causes substantial loss that might be ...

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