Health 101 Midterm1 Revision Notes - Health Inequalities, Immune System and Infection.

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LEC 3-4

  • Health inequality: Systematic difference in health between groups of people due to
  • Biological differences  
  • Personal choices, socio-economic status, differential access to health care

  • Health inequity: A healthy inequality that is deemed unfair à  moral imperative to try to correct
  • Health disparity: Inequality of social disadvantages


  • Primary

Individual=smoking cessation counseling

population=anti smoking publicity campaigns

  • Secondary

individual=chest x-rays


  • Tertiary

individual=follow up exam to test for recurrence or metastasis

population=improve access to high quality care especially in underserved neighborhoods


  • Primary

Individual-counseling on safe drug use or safer sex

Population-programs to discourage needle sharing or promote condom use

  • Secondary

Individual-screening for HCV infection among drug abusers or sex workers

Population-establish universal testing system for HCV in high risk groups

  • Tertiary

Individual: therapy to cure infection and prevent transmission

Population: similar to primary


  • Primary

-individual: nutrition and exercise counseling

-population: built environment favorable for active transport(bike lines, walking trails, parks)

  • Secondary

-individual: screening for diabetes

-population: community level weight loss programs

  • Tertiary

-individual: cardiac rehabilitation services

-population: multi-disciplinary clinics and programs

Metabolic Syndrome-insulin resistance (pre diabetes)


Sir Geoffrey Rose -British epidemiologist, drew a distinction between the causes of individual cases and causes of patterns of incidence in a population, proposed preventing a disease by shift of entire population distribution of a risk factor more efficient than focusing interventions solely on people at high risk(primary prevention)

  • Protection: Primordial and primary prevention activities.

PHAC-public health agency of Canada to promote and prevent health control diseases and prepare for emergencies (police of health)

Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion-it is identified as the seven prerequisites for adult health peace;  shelter;  education;  food;  income;  a stable eco-system,and sustainable resources.

  • Behaviour change-approach to management from unhealthy to healthy behaviours

  • Locus of Control-where the person designates the source of responsibility for events in there lives

-Two types: External (own fault)(did not study for test)        

                    Internal (not ur fault(failing test due to temp of room)

  • Transtheoretical model-change of stages of model, for you to move the target behaviour      you must move through distinct stages


LEC 6-7

  • Qualitative-literature based research
  • Quantitative-physical based research

  • Epidemiology-occurrence of diseases in ppl

  • Comparative discipline- risks of ppl affected to not affected(where is the casual relationship between two?)

Austin Bradford Hill- proposed casual relationship of epidemiological relationships

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  1. Strength of association
  2. Graded response to graded dose
  3. Consistency
  4. Temporal relationship
  5. Plausible mechanism
  • Cofounding:  

  • Observational studies-non-randomized observation of what happens to ppl under exposure to ppl outside the control of researcher

Two types of observational studies:

  • Descriptive: does not test hypothesis, describes how things are{surveys-health habits}
  • Analytical: hypothesis looks at outcome variable{relations between two problems}

  • Case Study - A study of one diseased individual, providing a detailed description, of an uncommon disease; provides timely or rare information.
  • Case Series - A study of multiple occurrences of ...

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