P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health practice and managing phobias.

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P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health practice:

In this assignment I will be explain how two different psychological approaches understand and manage phobias. The phobia I will be using to give examples is the phobia of needles.

The Behaviourist Perspective:

This perspective can be used to get over a phobia by using Skinner’s theory, Operant conditioning. Operant conditioning can be used when trying to shape someone’s behaviour on something. This is when you are trying to create a new behaviour of something and getting rid of an unhelpful behaviour.

Phobia of a needle: 

If a patient wanted to get rid of their phobia of needles they can do this in two ways, either with positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. For example, their first step of getting rid of the phobia may be holding a needle and if they have done this then they may get rewarded by treating themselves or getting praises from someone (positive reinforcement). Whereas if they didn’t hold the needle then they may get scolded by someone which may leave them feeling upset and make them think they are not capable of holding a needle; this may make them want to prove the person wrong and then hold the pin (negative reinforcement). Their next step may be to hold an injection and putting it slowing into a doll to show how the nurses will be doing it safely. If they do this then positive reinforcement will be given. Once they have overcome their fear of needles, they may go for a blood test to see if their behaviour of needles has changed.

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The Psychodynamic perspective:

This perspective can help understand and manage a phobia by using Freud’s theory about the conscious and unconscious mind. The person’s phobia may be in unconscious mind where something may have happened in the past which affects their mind of the object. For example, when a person looks at a needle they may get scared by remembering an incident that had happened in the past with a needle. Once the person knows that they are afraid of needles then this will come to their conscious mind where they are aware of knowing they have a phobia ...

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