Why did many Bolsheviks oppose the New Economic Policy?
Many Bolsheviks opposed the New Economic Policy because it was not a Communist ideal. Lenin adopted a policy that encouraged a capitalist economy, when the Bolshevik’s political backing was challenged by the mutiny of the Kronstadt naval army. The rebellion of the soldiers made Lenin realise he was pressuring the people of Russia to become Communist too rapidly and he settled for trying to integrate Communism into Russia gradually. War Communism had placed strict measures on the economy and denied Russia the ability to flourish in its industrial and agricultural production.
By allowing a private market for peasants to profit on their surplus of grain, this prompted an increase in agricultural production, but the implementation of a private enterprise went against the idea that everyone would be treated equally and would be paid the same wage, as a portion of peasants became rich through the policy. In industry, small factories were sold by the state to individual owners, going against state ownership and although the large-scale production industry predominantly remained state controlled, the state industry was instructed to adapt to the demands of the market. The supply and demand aspect of industry is an important component of capitalism and this shaped the structure of the industrial manufacture. Conventionally, the Communist society doesn’t believe in the celebration of intellectuals or specialists, as they want everyone to contribute in the same fashion as the workers, yet during the NEP, experts were introduced in order to stimulate production and given a high salary for their performance. The NEP also allowed new traders and for private businesses to be set up, another facet of a capitalist economy.