#### For this investigation I have been asked to find out how different masses on a spring effect the extension when the springs are in parallel, series and on a single spring.

Planning Aim For this investigation I have been asked to find out how different masses on a spring effect the extension when the springs are in parallel, series and on a single spring. Key factors Independent variables: * Extension of spring Dependent variable * Mass on spring(s) Controlled variable * Springs The range of readings that I am going to take will be from 0kg to 0.50kg this is because it will give me a good set of data to work with. I will increase the mass by half a kilogram each time. To make sure I get good accurate fair results I will repeat the process at least 3 times. When I do repeat the process I will make sure that I leave all the equipment as it is and not replace bits or add or remove components. To make sure that I don't have to replace any components, I will before I start the test make sure that all my equipment is working correctly and properly calibrated to the range of readings that I will take in the test. Prediction I predict that the extension of a spring will be proportional to its load during its elastic region and that when the load of the spring is doubled so will the extension of the spring; this can then be used to find the spring constant. If two springs are placed in series, I believe that the extension of the springs will be double the extension of a single spring with the same load (therefore will have half the

• Word count: 1859
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### My perfect night

My perfect night A poem by Jamie Barratt My perfect night, of which there are few is a place by the sea with a picturesque view I'll watch the sun as it rises and falls A lone whale swims, making gentle calls Stars will appear, darkness descend I gaze with wonder through an enlarged lens A full moon emerges, a giant in the sky A sight less than stunning would be a lie Listening to the sea lapping on the shore feeling my senses yearning for more The scent of sea air surrounds me so On occasions I don't smell it, I feel so low A sea so serene, a sky so clear many stars shimmer brightly, they appear so near I use these nights as a time to reflect on a world of cruelty, anger and

• Word count: 140
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Testing Hooke's Law

Testing Hooke's Law By Daniel Bowman 11CU Introduction Hooke's law is when forces applied to a solid object and it can result in extension or compression. Hooke's law is able to predict how a stretchable object would behave when a force is applied to it. Planning I aim to show how much force strips of black bin liners (polythene) will take before it reaches its elastic limit and obey Hooke's law. I will also investigate if the length of the strips can alter the results, keeping the width the same. The main suitable equipment I will need to use may include the two different types of plastic cut at different lengths and 100g masses to test the extension. I will obviously need other basic apparatus to carry out the investigation. My experiment will last until each strip of plastic splits, so I cannot at this time state how many masses I will require. Polythene The plastic I have chosen to use has many uses. Polythene is used to manufacture bottles, carrier bags, buckets, machine parts and bowls. This suggests to me that thickness of the plastic can affect the strength, as a plastic carrier bag is not as strong as a plastic bucket. I also no that there are two types of polythene: High density, which is rigid and hard, and low density, which is tough and flexible. Machine parts are generally made from high-density polystyrene whilst bottles are made from the

• Word count: 2173
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### "Bridging the Miles Between East and West" - compare and contrast.

Comparison and Contrast Essay "Bridging the Miles Between East and West" Silver Spring, Maryland, and Phoenix, Arizona, are practically on opposites sides of the country. Because Silver Spring is on the east coast and Phoenix is in the southwest desert, one would expect the climates to be completely different, and they are! But, other than that, the two cities share some commonalities. The fact that Silver Spring is a suburb of Washington D.C.--capital of the United States--and Phoenix is the capital of Arizona guarantees enriching cultural opportunities in both. Additionally, both happen to be surrounded by states brimming with diverse natural beauty. Although the distance and climactic differences between Silver Spring and Phoenix are great, the cultural similarities between the two cities manage to bridge the miles between them. The climates of the two cities represent their greatest diversity. Maryland is a Mid-Atlantic state on the east coast where the weather is, as one would expect, cold in the winter and hot in the summer. It may snow in the winter, but not very often and not very deep. Summers are hot with humidity reaching 90% at times, creating a muggy atmosphere. It is in the spring and fall, however, that Maryland is at its best. In March, balmy weather starts rolling in, enticing tulips and crocuses out of their cold beds. Azaleas soon follow, punctuating

• Word count: 773
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Does an elastic band behave in the same way as a steel spring?

Does an elastic band behave in the same way as a steel spring? Apparatus Clamp stand, rubber elastic band, 0.5N weights, 1 metre stick, clamp and pointer. Method We set the apparatus as shown above. First of all we took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. Then we steadily increased the force by adding a 0.5N weight each time to the elastic band. We did this until we reached 3N, and then steadily decreased the force by carefully taking of a 0.5N weight each time, until we had no weights attached to the elastic band. Next we again took the measurement on the metre rule in cm, of the elastic band at the pointer without any weights attached. We recorded the results of the length in cm at the pointer, each time a weight was added or removed and at the beginning and end when no force was being applied to the elastic band. We repeated the experiment 3 times to make sure our results were valid. We made sure the experiment was fair by keeping the following variables the same; Elastic band Apparatus Units on metre rule to record results (cm) Person taking measurement Amount of load added each time Person adding and removing weights Temperature Position Lastly, we worked out an average length in cm by adding the 3 results and dividing by 3. We then took 1 average from an other to work out the

• Word count: 566
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Hooke's Law / Young's Modulus - trying to find out what factors effect the stretching of a spring.

Hooke's Law / Young's Modulus I am trying to find out what factors effect the stretching of a spring. Things, which might affect this, are: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to look at the effect of the weight applied, as it is a continuous variation. I predict that the greater the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. This is because extension is proportional to load and so if load increases so does extension and so stretching distance. Extension = New length - Original length To see if my prediction is correct I will experiment, and obtain results using Hookes Law. He found that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the spring. Hookes Law F=ke F = Force in Newtons k = Spring constant e = Extension in Meters My method of experimentation will be to use a clamp stand and boss clamp to suspend a spring from. A second boss clamp will hold in place a metre rule starting from the bottom of the spring to measure extension in mm. I will then add weights to the spring and measure extension. Before deciding on the range of experimentation I carried out a preliminary test to find the elastic limit of the springs we had. To do this I added weights to the spring until it

• Word count: 1958
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the relationship between the extension and the force added, whether they are linked through proportionality.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between the extension and the force added, whether they are linked through proportionality. Hypothesis: I predict that there will be a relationship between the force and the extension. I believe that as the force added increases so will the extension. There should also be a pattern, which will help describe the relationship between the force and the extension. I am led to believe this from the scientific theory of Hooke's Law, which states that: "The extension is directly proportional to the stretching force" This means that if the force is doubled the extension will be doubled or if trebled it will be also trebled and it follows this same pattern. Fair Test: For this experiment I will be using elastic bands rather than springs. I will have to make sure that it is a fair test to have the most accurate results possible. Factors, which I have to take into consideration, are things like the length and thickness of the rubber bands. I must also make sure to use a new rubber band so it won't be worn out or damaged as not to get wrong results. To overcome this problem I'll use one average sized and thickness rubber band throughout the whole experiment. I must not put to much weight on the rubber band or it will reach its 'elastic point' and be permanently damaged. For this experiment to be a fair test I will keep everything the

• Word count: 1040
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the behaviour ofan elastic material when a tensile force is applied.

Sian Jones 11BGC Aim: To investigate the behaviour of an elastic material when a tensile force is applied. What I know: In the 1660s Robert Hooke investigated how springs and wires stretched when loads were applied. He found out that for many materials, the extension and load were in proportion provided the elastic limit was not exceeded. Materials can be compressed as well as stretched. If a material is stretched but springs back to its original shape they are known as elastic. However they stop being elastic if bent or stretched too far. They either break or become permanently deformed. The springs represent the bonds caused by the forces of attraction and repulsion between the atoms, due to the electric charges of their nuclei and electrons. The attractive forces between the molecules in a solid provide its characteristic elastic or stretchy properties. When we stretch a solid, we are slightly increasing the spacing of it molecules. The tension we can feel in a stretched spring is due to all the forces of attraction between the molecule in the spring. Possible variables: I could change > The mass of load > Material of spring > Length of spring Variables I will study: I will study the mass of load. How I will make my test fair and why: To make sure my investigation is as fair as possible I will do a number of things. Firstly I will make sure that an equal

• Word count: 1443
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation on springs.

Investigation on springs Planning Background The silicon chip has been the cornerstone of the IT revolution for the past several decades. Over the years we have seen the size of the devices such as microprocessors shrink and their speed increase considerably. However, to enable miniaturisation to proceed as it has electronic device engineers have had to integrate discrete devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors into the chips themselves. To achieve this they have had to make these components essentially out of the silicon itself. To enable them to do so they have had to understand what factors affect, for example, the resistance of the material that they used. In a similar manner, see if you can discover what factors affect the resistance of a metal wire in the laboratory. Aim I will construct an experiment with the aim to first to discover what factors affect the resistance of a metal wire and secondly to find appropriate factors to measure the resistance in a simple way. Preliminary Work * Length of wire to use: metre of metal wire should be used because this is the same distance of an average arms length. Also we can get 10 readings of results from a 1metre length of metal wire if each reading is taking every 10cm. * Factors that affect resistance: Heat (temperature) Area Material Length * Which of these variables is the best variable to measure

• Word count: 1746
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To what extent are coastal landforms products to marine processes?

To what extent are coastal landforms products to marine processes? By Raya Racheva 5IB The coast is the boundary on the ocean where the land, sea and air meet and interact with each other, and influenced by the human activity shape the diverse, ever changing forms of the coastal terrain. The various processes that act on the coastline, like terrestrial, atmospheric, marine and human impact, make it impossible for the landforms to resemble. Even though each of the factors mentioned above are present at all time and they all have their part in the development of the coastal landforms, this essay will look at how big is the role of the marine processes in specific and are there other factors that can be considered as mostly acting on the coasts. On the coastal terrain, from the zone where the salt spray, sea water and sand blown by the wind towards the inland extend, to the place on the sea bed to which waves can move sediment, the landforms are defined into different types. Rocky shores, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches, coral reefs are all products of the constant actions of water, humans, and atmosphere. In addition one of the four processes listed above might have a bigger impact on a coastal landform than the others. Waves, currents, tides, salt sprays and some biotic features like corals are all known as marine processes. The waves supply a huge amount of energy that

• Word count: 979
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science