Lilian Kim Global II Thematic Essay October 16, 2002 Throughout the course of written history, people have made great changes that have made the society, government, and traditions what they are today. Even before written history, some individual made huge a revolution in the world by creating a writing system. People try hard to change and mold the world and many have come out positively, and others negatively. A great time of change and revolution in history is the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution. Some people who have had a great impact during this time were the Scientists Copernicus and Galileo, and the philosopher Locke. Before Copernicus's time people had agreed with Ptolemy's Geocentric Theory, that the Earth was the center of the universe and the sun and everything else revolved around the earth. This also went with the church's teachings and the church was basically the law in that time, so they influenced and stressed that idea, and most people agreed and believed it. However Copernicus went against the church, the people, and the accepted law and said that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. He declared that the Sun was a solitary object while all the other planets including the earth rotated around the sun, called the Heliocentric Theory. This caused turmoil and confusion within the people with some still
Why did desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950s?
Coursework 1 Why did desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950s? In the 1950s, the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of schools in America was to become illegal because of the inequality of the facilities. Desegregation had to take place immediately, which meant that the white and black children had equal and fair rights in education. He process of desegregation failed and caused major problems throughout the 1950s. One of the Long-term reasons for the problems was the American Civil War from1860-65. Black children in Southern states had previously not attended school because they were slaves and did not own the rights to an education. President Lincoln was all for destroying slavery and for a time; southern blacks enjoyed their equality. They could do this because at the time the north ruled the southern states, but that soon changed. After 1865 however, power was back into the hands of the whites and they felt that he blacks freedom was a threat to whites. This led the white Americans in the southern states to introduce a chain of unfair laws called the "'Jim Crow Laws'. These laws brought back segregation and racism, which derived from slavery. In 1896, a law was passed which made the return of segregation legal as long as the education of blacks and whites was kept equal by having the same opportunities and working facilities. This
Why did opposition to Apartheid grow during the 1950s and 1960s in South Africa?
South Africa Question 4 Why did opposition to Apartheid grow during the 1950s and 1960s in South Africa? The reason opposition grew to Apartheid was because the black South African lives had got so bad and fed up off been treated as second-class citizens. They had good strong leaders and organisations like the ANC and overseas support. The Defiance Campaign (1952) was a peaceful mass protest against the Apartheid laws. It began in June in the Eastern Cape, where volunteers wearing ANC armbands ignored "European Only" signs and allow them selves to be arrested. More than 8000 arrests were made and the ANC kept their protests peaceful. However in October rioting broke out and both blacks and white were killed. The government introduced new laws to stop this including up to 3 years in jail. However in 1952 the ANC members but the harsh new measures taken by the government bought the campaign to an end. In 1952 Chief Albert Luthuli became its new leader of ANC peaceful campaigns against Apartheid. He encouraged the ANC to work with other organisations that want change in South Africa. In 1955, they held a Congress of the people; there were repetitive from: - ANC - South African Indian Congress - Coloured People's Congress - Congress of Democrats (whites) They all drew up a list of basic demands of what need changing, this was known as the "Freedom Charter". ) All
Describe the main features of the Watergate scandal in the USA. The Watergate Scandal was caused by an attempt to bug the offices of the Democrat Party in the Watergate building in Washington. Five men were arrested in June 1972. The men were employed by CREEP, Committee to re-elect the President. Some of the key features were the secretive activites CREEP, dirty tricks, the cover-up, role of television, senate hearings, Nixon's registration and the scandal's impact on politics. In 1968, Richard Nixon, the Republican candidate, was elected president. In 1972 he would have to seek-reelection. Concerned that he might not be re-elected, he set up CREEP, "Committee to Re-elect the President". It was led by John Mitchell, a close adviser to Nixon, who was encouraged to use any tactics he saw fit to ensure Nixon's re-election, including dirty tricks or illegal methods. Sixty million dollars were illegally collected to fight this campaign, with $350,000 set aside for these dirty tricks, including the idea of "bugging" the Democrat offices at Watergate. This campaign led to the break in which started scandal and led to the cover-up. On 17th June, five members of CREEP were arrested for breaking into the Watergate offices. These burglars turned out to be rather unusual. They were not stealing from the offices, but instead planting electronic bugging devices. One burglar turned out
Were Contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the Western World After The Cuban Missile Crisis?
Were Contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the Western World After The Cuban Missile Crisis? On October 22 1962, President Kennedy informed the world, that the Soviet Union was building missile bases in Cuba. Superpower brinkmanship came close to exploding into nuclear war because of these missiles. When Khrushchev finally backed down ,the crisis appeared to have ended victoriously for Kennedy and America. American propaganda took the opportunity to praise America's triumphant way of dealing with the crisis and Kennedy's role of saving the Western World from devastation. However recent research is critical of Kennedy's claim to be the Savior of the Western World, because he was not alone in resolving the situation, and Kennedy's negative attitude towards Cuba contributed in beginning, endorsing and escalating the crisis. American Media presented Kennedy's role in the Crisis as that of the Savior of the Western world. American propaganda said that his resolutness to soviet hostility had caused Khrushchev to remove soviet missiles from Cuba. A cartoon, drawn at the height of the cold war, presented the idea of the Crisis as an old fashioned Western shoot out. The cartoon enhanced Kennedy's reputation by presenting him as the good guy ,standing up to evil but also undermined Khrushchev's reputation. At Kennedy's funeral, a member of Excom
Were the sixties swinging?
Were the sixties swinging? We often hear the sixties referred to as the 'swinging' decade bye people who were around at the time, but really how true is this statement. Were the sixties really swinging or is that just the way people want to remember them. Could the term 'the swinging sixties' really have been created to mask the tragedy and suffering of many during that decade? The sixties was, undoubtedly one of the most internationally hostile decades of the century. Through many separate events there was a breakdown in international trust. I will go into these later. No one can deny however that the sixties were swinging, at least in the world of fashion. Music too was a big influence on the cultures that came into being during the decade. The sixties were the first times that things were directed at the young and youth culture throughout the period became more and more socially acceptable. For this piece of coursework I have interviewed three people alive during the sixties and also people of my own age who weren't. I will then compare these perceptions with the reality. Firstly we will look at my primary sources who were around during the period. The first person is my grandmother Mary Gammage; she was aged 30 at the start of the sixties. She lived in England throughout the decade. Her husband (my grandfather) was also 30 at the start of the sixties and lived in
What happened at Sharpeville on 21 March 1960? Massacre or self defence?
What happened at Sharpeville on 21 March 1960? Massacre or self defence? . (a) Both Sources A and B agree that there were Saracen armoured cars around on the morning of the events. They also agree that there were large amounts of police. Source A says; "There were plenty of police", Source B mentions "police reinforcements". Another thing on which both sources agree is the large numbers of people protesting in the crowd. The sources mention; "There were crowds on the streets" (Source A) and that there were "thousands of Africans shouting" (Source B). Both sources agree that the Africans were approaching the police station. Also both sources mention the crowds chanting and using slogans. Source A says people were shouting 'Izwe Lethu (Our Land)'. This chant could have created an intimidating atmosphere for the white policeman and they could have become angered, scared and worried for their own and their colleagues safety. This also shows that the Africans were extremely patriotic. The other source shows this aswell but is it not the same slogan that is mentioned; 'Africa, Africa' they are said to be saying. Both sources agree that the crowds were very lively. . (b) Sources A and B disagree on the atmosphere that was created at the time. Source A seems to create a happy, joyful atmosphere. It says; 'It was like a Sunday outing'. However Source B creates an atmosphere of a
Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950's?
Colin Eagle - History Coursework - Centre No. 57311 - Balcarras CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE USA IN THE 1950'S AND 1960'S COURSEWORK ASSIGNMENT Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950's? Ever since segregation affected the education system children were 'separate but equal', this meant they were segregated. By 1954, 20 states had legally enforced segregated schools, this did no favours to the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) and they challenged the right of the local school boards and took them to the Supreme Court. Their case was successful and Chief Justice, Earl Warren proclaimed that to separate Negro children from others of the same background is not right and the 'separate but equal' policy deserves no place. The Supreme Court also stated that segregation made blacks feel inferior and the separate facilities were not equal. As a result of this court ruling it deemed segregation illegal and it also signalled the end of segregation in schools and the beginning of desegregation, this was the bringing together of whites and blacks. As a result of the integration of schools there became a major problem in the USA for many reasons. I believe the most major problem towards the coming of desegregation was the attitude whites had towards blacks, it may of not been entirely there fault as it was a long term
Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950's?
Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950's? The desegregation of schools became a major problem in the USA in the 1950's. The problems originated from the racial hate between the white and black people of America. Many white people had adopted a negative manner towards blacks after slavery was abolished in 1864. Following the American Civil War the majority of Southern States had passed the Jim Crow laws, which discriminated against African Americans with concern to their social, economic and political rights. As a consequence of these laws black people in the South faced constant racial abuse, which prevented them from achieving the same standard of living as the white citizens, including in schools. Court cases and demonstrations were to bring the injustice of segregated schools into the public eye and eventually change the Southern laws. The fourteenth amendment prohibited the state from denying the fundamental rights of every citizen. The amendment was examined in the case of 'Plessy v Ferguson' (1896.) Plessy was considered black by law, and was jailed for sitting in a white carriage. He took the case to court but it was deemed that Segregation was constitutional. The Jim Crowe laws were therefore permitted as long as the conditions were equal for both blacks and whites. This was to remain until the NAACP was established in
Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950s?
Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950s? Segregation of schools is when coloured and white children were taught in separate schools. Desegregation of schools is when coloured and white children go to the same school together. In the 1950's the southern states of America had segregation in schools and the black schools had poorer teaching qualities Black people had to use different buses, drink from different water fountains and even eat at different restaurants. Things were bad for blacks, but the American president, Eisenhower, passed the civil rights act. This meant that the coloured and white children would now go to the same schools. This happened even though at first, only a few black people went to desegregated schools. This is because of white racists not wanting coloured's and whites attending the same school. The main incident of this was at Little Rock Arkansas. Even though President Eisenhower had passed the Civil Rights Act, the governor of Arkansas, Orville Fabus, did not agree. He did not agree with white children and coloured children being taught in the same school. So one day before the new term started Fabus sent in 270 National Guardsmen to stop any coloured children getting into the school. So the next day when the black students tried to enter the school the National Guard stopped them. As they left the