Why Did Roosevelt win The 1932 Presidential Election?
With American being under Hoovers Government, everything had begun to go downhill for him. The depression had hit the people socially and economically, and didn't seem to improve under Hoover's control, and ideas that things would gradually get better.
Stock market shares plumited resulting in banks going bankrupt due to buying shares and not being able to pay out the money they owed.
In 1929, 659 banks failed, which had great effect upon the people's opinion of Hoover. Many stopped trusting them and withdrew their savings.
Many problems escalated in European banks, having a knock on effect on U.S banking.
One billion dollars was withdraw and put into deposit boxes, Roosevelt was offering the Americans new jobs and work, one of his aims was to work towards protecting their savings and property. Providing relief for the sick, old and unemployed.
Farming was badly hit, and prices had fallen so the cost of animal transportation was costing a lot more than buying the animals themselves.
Farming production fell by a massive 40%.
The people wanted jobs, security and a better living, under Hoovers government they were not getting this.
When the depression began, President Hoover took the impression that it would not last long and that the country would soon return to prosperity, the country soon found that he was wrong.
He had already been acused of doing nothing about the depression, whereas Roosevelt was prepared. He wanted to use full resources of the Federal Government to end the depression as soon as possible.
Hoover seemed handicapped by his own views about individual freedom and failed to inspire the people with his confidence.
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People felt let down by Hoover, he had no answers and democracy began to pull through.
Roosevelt was on the democratic side of the election, and was a good strong public speaker. He was a firm believer and thought that anyone who worked hard enough could become rich.
He had been elected president four times and was determined to beat facism; an extremely popular man.
There was a huge amount of unemployment, by 1933, 14 million were jobless, workers were being laid off, and wages were decreasing rapidly.
The people were desperate for new help; Roosevelt would be the one to give it them.
Sourse A, shows many things about the way Roosevelt wanted things to change for the better. It is a speech he read to the people of America.
"I pledge you, I pledge myself" here, he shows that it's not going to be a one man job, and he wants to work with the people of America, and together, they can improve their lives.
This would be done by 'The New Deal', which he would introduce to them.
In one part he asks
'Give me your help' this shows a personal touch to his speech, somehow putting his trust in the people, to help him.
'Win this crusade to restore America', the word crusade has a religious meaning to it, which would appeal to the religious people who were wlso looking for a way out of the depression.
'We accept the promise', the word promise would mean that him wanting to help the people was for real, and a promise is not something to be broken.
This also gave them a sense of trust in him.
All in all, after Roosevelt's speech, the people of America were given hope, something to believe in, appart from the terrible depression which was going on around them.
In Roosevelts speech, he mentioned four words which worked well together to reach out to the people in America, and to show he was trying to understand what they were going through, because Roosevelt himself was probably also suffering from the problems.
"I am waging war against Destruction, (the destruction of the American economy, he wanted to improve it.)
Delay, (the way Hoover was taking so much time over trying to sort things out, thinking time would solve the problems.)
Deceit, (the people going aginst Hoover in the bonus marches, and maybe the way Hoover seemed somehow against trying to make things better as soon as possible) and Despair" (the unhappy times that people were going through, not knowing what to do with their lives.)
He ends his speech with;
" With confidence, we accept the promise of a New Deal"
He uses the word 'confidence', which he was trying his best to give to the people of America, along with his hope. He wanted to know that he had the peoples' trust.
Still under the power of Hoover's government, Americans were keeping their money instead of buying goos or shares.
Business cut production further and laid many other workers off.
Due to the massive amount of unemployed people, all the nightparks were full of the homeless, hungry and jobless.
Hoover's government seemed to be doing little to help those suffering; fustration mounted as people's hopes for what Hoover had planned began to fade.
Hoovers way of thinking proved very wrong and unpopular, people drew up the conclusion that he didn't care about the people of America.
Protests were held and often turned violent, the rally of unemployed turned into a riot. Roosevelt's ideas would maybe change views and living.
The workers who were still employed yet sick of starvation wages got angry too. This led to strikes and bitter clashes in many cities. Roads were being blockaded, fights broke out, and trains and cars were stopped.
Hoover was being regarded as a 'do nothing' president, and many democratic posters began to make fun out of the situation he had caused.
The biggest show of discontent was the Bonus March of 1932. Some 15,000 armed troops with their wives and children, along with tanks and teargas, steamed into Washington and set up temporary homes. General MacArther led this; many were killed and injured; though Hoover refused to give in.
This act of violence turned many against Hoover. He had a bad effect on lots of people and made them feel very angry.
Roosevelt used the radio and other means of propaganda to speak to the entire nation as a friend and as a neighbour. This gained support well because he was getting through to a wide range of people and places in America. He was always very frank in his speeches, and used to get straight to the point with what he was trying to say.
Roosevelt suffered from polio disease, which is the loss of any feeling in your legs.
He proved that he was an incedibly strong and determined man by not letting the disease come in the way of his career. People did not feel sorry for Roosevelt because of this.
Hoover and most Republicans were still reluctant to change their basic policies, he said that the government did not need an interface. People wouldn't spend much money under his control because they feared loosing it all after the Wall Street crash.
People turned to Roosevelt, he strongly believed in an 'active government' and tried his best to improve the lives of the ordinary people.
As a govener of New York, he had already started doing this in his own state.
Hoover's supposid plan of action didn't seem to improve anything, Roosevelt and his plans of the New deal, would.
He promised 'action and action now'. He put together a programme of new laws to help America out of the depression. The 'New Deal' would relieve extreme poverty, feed the starving and stop people from losing farms and homes. It would revive the economy and get people working again, and it would reform, making the USA a better place to live.
He'd been a governor and helped people before hand, his battle to overcome disability showed his courage and determination, the people knew that he would show the same enthusiasm and determination towards helping America escape the depression.
Roosevelt basically offered what the people of America, what they wanted. In comparison to Hoover, who seemed to be taking the whole thing lightly, he didn't come across in the way the Roosevelt did. The people liked the way he spoke, acted, and hoped in him for a better future.
He was also not afraid of asking advice on important issues from a range of experts such as factory owners, union leaders and economists.
In conclusion, F.Roosevelt succeeded in winning the 1932 presidential election because he was offering what the people were looking for in the times of the depression. Hoover was doing nothing to help them out of the situation they were in, and which he had gotten the USA into.
Roosevelt was a benefaction to the people of America, who gave hope to them, and made them believe things can and will get better.
Roosevelt had the 'New Deal', Hoover had nothing.