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GCSE: Legislation & The Legal Framework
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Legislations were also created for the misuse of data and viruses as well. Before 1990 there wasn't a law against any misuse of computers so it was legal to send a virus to someone's computer. Since then there have been several legislations, which have come into place that prevent this from happening. Suitable protection acts: Many of these legislations take effect in our community including cyber caf� bars and libraries. Cyber cafes have many users using the same computer so it is important that information is protected and not found by others. There are also many people using the same computers in libraries.
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'sensitive personal data' and restrictions on export of data to countries which do not have an adequate level of protection (all of which will be discussed later), the 1998 Act is very similar in structure and approach to the 1984 Act. Now is a good time to familiarise yourself with the differences. Who's who in data protection? The Data Protection Commissioner The Data Protection Registrar will become the Data Protection Commissioner under the 1998 Act. The Commissioner is responsible for maintaining the data protection register and enforcing data protection law in the UK.
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Protect confidentiality, e.g. prevent unauthorised access to documents or records To protect documents from confidentiality you can use the three main types of data security and they are: * Physical security * Access security * Data security To protect data using physical security you should follow the 7 SAD-FLAB rules to stay safe with confidentiality and they are: 1. Serial number 2. Alarms 3. Doors 4. Fire protection 5. Lock 6. Avoid 7. Blinds. You can use these to protect the hardware because if anything happens you have to spend money on a new hard which is expensive.
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Seatbelts provide the most important protection from serious injury in a motor vehicle accident. Belts should be able to be adjusted to fit the individual wearer. Seatbelt mounting and anchorage allow for adjustment to ensure comfort. There are other design features such as pre-tensioner belts that provide additional safety to the seatbelt retraction system. Three-point seatbelt systems provide better protection than two-point lap belts, which are sometimes fitted to the centre rear position. Airbags provide a safety barrier between the occupant and the interior of the vehicle. A driver's airbag provides protection from the steering wheel and passenger airbags also provide substantial protection in a crash.
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The titles will also be in comic sans but in bold and underlined. This makes the titles stand out and can easily be recognisable to what that part is about, but not too big that it obscures the rest of the writing. My header and footer will have my name in it, and also the page number and how many pages there are in the whole project e.g. page 2 of 19. This layout is suitable for a report as it is plain but simple, which gives it an effective appearance but also gets the information clearly across to the reader without any difficulty.
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who use VDUs for a significant amount of time while working to reduce repetitive strain injury, fatigue and eye problems which were very common occurrences in the 80s and early 90s. To abide by these regulations employers must > Analyse workstations and assess and reduce risks > Ensure workstations meet minimum requirements > Provide health and safety training for employees so they can use all areas of workstation equipment correctly > Arrange and pay for eye tests Its not only the employers that take responsibility, employees also have to > Bring problems to the attention of the employer as soon as possible > Use workstations and equipment correctly And not abiding by these rules can too result in criminal prosecution.
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Useful sites are: www.webopedia.com www.howstuffworks.com > Hacking-Unauthorised access to data on a computer system. For example, logging into someone elses bank account, and withdrawing money, without their authorisation or knowing. > Planting viruses-A computer virus is a program that replicates itself automatically. Most viruses carry a payload, which makes them either display annoying messages or graphics on the screen or destry yur files (programs and data). Examples of different types of viruses are Boot sector viruse, file viruses and macro viruses.
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process personal data * meet one of a number of further conditions in order to process sensitive data * inform individuals when their data are collected. The Data Protection Act creates a number of criminal offences. They include: * Notification offences * Procuring and selling offences * Enforced subject access, and * Other offences. The Data Protection Act prosecutions and penalties. * A summary proceedings for an offence under Data Protection Act may be brought and prosecuted by the Commissioner, * Summary proceedings for an offence under Data Protection Act may be instituted within one year from the date of the offence.
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* 7. An individual shall be entitled: * 7. (a) at reasonable intervals and without undue delay or expense. * 7. (a) (i) to be informed by any Data User whether he holds personal data of which that individual is the subject, and * 7. (a) (ii) to access to any such data held by a Data User, and * 7. (b) where appropriate, to have such data corrected or erased. * 8. Appropriate security measures shall be taken against unauthorized access to, or alteration, disclosure or destruction of, personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of personal data.
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Be held and processed only for the lawful purposes described in the register entry 3. Be used only for those purposes and only be disclosed to those people in the register entry 4. Be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose for which they are held 5. Be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date 6. Be held no longer than is necessary for the registered purpose 7. Be surrounded by proper security 8. Not be transferred outside of the European Economic Area unless the country that the data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law All of these principals apply to data stored on a computer or on paper, an amendment to the Act of 1984, which only applied to data stored on a computer.
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All data users who store personal information about other people on their computer systems must register with the Data Protection Commission. They must also follow eight principals, called the Data Protection Principals. 1. The personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless at least one of the following conditions are met: - The data subject has given their permission for the processing. - The processing is necessary for the performance of a contract which involves the data subject.
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Critically evaluate the extent to which it can be said that copyright law gives adequate and appropriate protection to contemporary works of art?
So if the courts are satisfied that a contemporary piece of art work falls under section 4 1 (a) and it is either a graphic work, photograph, sculpture, or collage the artist will almost certainly obtain copyright and gain full protection over his or her work. This means that a Jackson Pollock painting made up of coloured squiggles is just as deserving of copyright protection as a very traditional landscape or self-portrait. What this formula ensures is that personal taste or preference is no bar to copyright protection. However we will see later that in fact although this may be true it is not always the case as opinions of certain judges on artistic work may alter the right to gain copyright altogether.
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Fundamentally different approaches in the US and the EU Europe and the US have very different approaches to data protection and privacy. In 250 years, nations on each side of the Atlantic have evolved their democracies into distinct forms of society and market economy. Differences in culture, policies and society are the consequence. a.) Government Interference vs. Self-Regulation As discussed in seminar one, there is an ongoing dispute regarding the approach in choosing an apt legal framework for the public and transnational sphere of cyberspace: Some scholars want governments to interfere as little as possible, others see the need for a unified legal framework.
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The multi-user agreement will often state the maximum number of copies that the license buyer may make. * Site license - this covers the use of the software over a site, but the agreement will often state a maximum number of copies that can be made. Computer Misuse Act 1990 This act is concerned with unauthorised access to computer systems and any subsequent crimes or changes to data/programs. It has three levels or sections of offence:- Section 1 A person is guilty of an offence if: a)
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In fact, it is slightly longer than that as copyright ends on 1 January after the seventieth anniversary. ( http://www.deadline.demon.co.uk/general/Copy.htm ,17/10/2003) Copyright begins when any of the work is actually created, even if you have not registered it. It is your right, as the creator of work, to put the copyright symbol next to your name, except when you have stolen work from someone else and are attempting to pass it off as your own. The individual normally owns copyright, unless the work is made in the course of employment, when it becomes owned by the employer. Copyright can also be allocated to another party, for instance a publisher.
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The following report will compare differences between internal and external information sources relevant to four different organisational types, only one information type will be used per organisation.
Examples of external information sources could be information obtained from trade publications, legislation, economic reviews, competitors and market surveys. Scientific Organisation Internal A scientific organisation may collect specific internally generated data about individuals for e.g. a Clinical Trails organisation may collect the following data. * Reactions to treatment by individuals (Personal) External External data used within this sector may be gathered from the following sources. * Legislative & Legal guidelines for clinical trials The data stored within a computerised system may be used to generate information/reports, which could indicate whether or not a new treatment or drug will be made available for general use, from both a medical and legal perspective.
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Back to Menu Hacking Hacking is the illegal access to other peoples computers. It is usually done via telephone networks like the Internet which can allow hackers to get access to computers anywhere in the world. Some hackers break into other peoples computer systems just for the pleasure of achieving something which is hard to do. Most hackers though do it for malicious reasons and set out to cause havoc. Hackers may steal information, change or even delete information. They may plant Trojan horse software which sends things like passwords back to the hacker. Hacking is a serious worry for many businesses. It could mean that trades secrets could be sold to competitors.
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The current legislation The current legislation is much like the old legislation except that there are some reforms that have been put into place. The Child protection Act of 1999 states that there are new rights of people reporting the suspected abuse and that there is a charter of rights for child care. When an investigation is being conducted and the investigator believes that it is important that the child does not return home until the end of the investigation due to there being a threat of possible harm, three types of orders can be applied for.
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That does not mean that types of processing information are prohibited, but they may be subjected to certain conditions. Simple files will continue to be exempted, just as the data processing for private or domestic use. 2. Summarise the eight principles of the Act The eight principals of the data protection act are: 1. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully 2. Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes. 3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed.
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Computer immediately signals an error, because none of the colours listed in the choice above starts with a 'p'. (OBTAINED FROM GNVQ I.T. INTERMEDIATE) Range check A field in a data base which has been designed for numbers can be limited within a set range with a maximum and minimum. The field can be limited within a set range, by giving a minimum or maximum figure or both. Computer Consultants Ltd. could include a range check for the computers it supplies. The models they normally supply range in price between �500 and �3,000. Therefore the minimum price could be set at 500 and the maximum at 3000.
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Viruses A computer virus is simply defined as a self-replicating automated program. However, as well as doing this, most viruses carry a payload which makes them either display annoying messages or graphics on the screen or destroy your files (programs and data). Several thousands of viruses are detected and prevented by most secure machines which have anti-virus software installed (such as AVG, Norton etc). However some viruses do manage to evade virus protection software and infect systems. Some viruses are so harmful that they can damage sensitive programs which a business may need in order to carry out operations.
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Tabs can be useful when arranging columns. Indents Indents are sometimes used when starting a new paragraph and this involves starting the first word of the paragraph a few characters to the right of the usual margin. Other types of indents include hanging indents where the first line keeps the usual margin but following lines are indented. 1.3 Sensible filenames, why? The filename is just the first part of the file and is referred to the main related to what is in the documents.
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This is to allow organisations time to bring their systems progressively into compliance with the regime created by the Act.) There are a number of exemptions to the right of subject access. In particular, where subject access would disclose information about an identifiable third party, or the fact that they are the source of personal information on the file, the data controller is not obliged to grant a subject access request unless the third party has consented to disclosure of the information; or it is reasonable in all the circumstances to comply with the request without their consent.
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who processes the data on behalf of the data controller; "data subject" means an individual who is the subject of personal data; "personal data" means data which relate to a living individual who can be identified- (a) from those data, or (b) from those data and other information which is in the possession of, or is likely to come into the possession of, the data controller, and includes any expression of opinion about the individual and any indication of the intentions of the data controller or any other person in respect of the individual; "processing", in relation to information or
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Is the UK copyright act of 1988 still an adequate means of protecting intellectual property from infringements such as illegal copying, plagiarism and piracy?
a copyright work in the course of a business, or distributes "otherwise than in the course of a business to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright" an offence will be committed. Nevertheless the extent of this protection has been greatly eroded due to fast moving changes in technology. One of the most significant legal questions surrounding the emerging Internet technologies is, admittedly, how copyright (and intellectual property in general) applies when unimaginably vast amounts of information can be digitally stored, copied and transmitted, cheaply and speedily.
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