Analysis of Performance - Badminton.
Analysis of Performance Badminton Rules and Laws: R) At the start of a badminton game, the server must start in the right hand service box and serve diagonally across the court to the left service box. R) The server must be behind the line when serving otherwise it is a foul. L) All players must stand still as the serve is being played and acknowledge that they are ready. During the start of a game, if the server misses the shuttle when swinging or the shuttle hits a part of their body, it is classed as a serve and therefore the serve is over and moves on to either the players partner or opponent. If a player touches the net with their racquet or any part of their body during a point playing rally then; the player who served at the start of the rally loses the serve, or, a point is awarded to the server if the player who received at the start of the rally touches the net. In men's singles and men's doubles, 15 points wins a game. However, if the score reaches 14-14, the side which first reached 14 can choose either to play to 15, or to set the game to 17 points. The final score will reflect the sum of the points won before setting plus the points gained in setting. Scoring in women's singles, women's doubles and mixed doubles is slightly different. 11 points wins a game and there is the option to set to 13 points at 10-10. Terminology and Tactics In the game of
Describe law and order in London in the late nineteenth century
Describe law and order in London in the late nineteenth century. In the late nineteenth century, many developments in law and order were introduced to London and played a key role in the Victorian lifestyle. These changes resulted in a more efficient and effective organisation and law system. The idea of a police force had only just been in the nineteenth century and consequently organisation, methods and public confidence was bound to differ. Two police forces were in action in 1800, the Bow Street Runners and the Thames River police force. The Bow Street Runners were set up in 1749 by Henry Fielding and were basically an early form of today's criminal investigation department. The Bow Street Runners had three main aims, crime detection, Crime prevention and maintaining public confidence. These police officers had a big reputation and were feared by the majority of criminals. The Bow Street Runners were the earliest form of a detective force and operated from the courts to enforce the decisions of magistrates. They were paid, trained, armed, uniformed force and had a central office in Bow Street, Their functions included serving writs, detective work and arresting offenders. The Bow Street Runners traveled all over the country in search of criminals and gained a reputation for honesty and efficiency. It wasn't long before crime reduced and conviction rates rose in the
Describe the system of trial by jury within the English legal system
Describe Jury Trials within the English Legal System Trial by Jury Juries are used in Crown Courts. The role of the jury is to listen to the evidence and decide whether the defendant is guilty or not. During the trial juror can make notes and ask for copies of any photographs of any document evidence, the judge decides any necessary points of the law, at the end of the trial the judge explains legal matters to the juror so they can make there verdict, if a juror want to ask any questions he can write them down, an court official hand the question to the judge. The trial must start with 12 jurors but the trial can take a long period of time and one of them could die or become ill. If the number can not fall below 9 jurors. Jurors A jury is a panel of 12 people who don't need to know the legal system but when they are sent a jury summons, they must then attend the jury unless they have an excuse or genuine reason to not attend. When a jury have heard the defendant has pleaded that he or she is not guilty then the jury is selected and sworn in and a full trial takes place. Also, when a defendant pleads guilty the jury are then sworn in and have to attend court for the whole case and decide weather the defendant is guilty or not. They are selected at the CSB (Central Summoning Bureau) by a computer from the electoral register in each area. Electoral registers are when
Describe the system of trial by jury within the English legal system
Section A: Describe the system of trial by jury within the English legal system. Over many years people have become familiarised by the term 'jury'. It is an essential part of our legal system, and can be traced back to the middle ages. In the Magna Carta, 1215, Clause 39 of the charter basically says that no man shall be imprisoned unless decided by his peers. It seemed a fair way to sentence someone. Juries have, however, normally still been under the power of the judge. Judges were allowed to fine or punish juries that come up with a verdict different to what he thinks himself. The independence of the jury finally happened in Bushel's Case, 1670. This happened following the trial of William Penn, who was being tried for unlawful speaking. Edward Bushel was a juror in the trial. All of the jury were treated unfairly, and eventually imprisoned, for the verdict that they came to. Whilst in prison, Bushel filed a writ of habeas corpus, which is a legal procedure that allows prisoners to argue the legality of their imprisonment. Chief Justice Vaughan agreed with Bushel and ordered the confined jurors to be released. Bushel's Case is very important in law because it basically invented jury nullification. The court made it clear that it is by the decision of the jury, not judge, that someone will be sentenced. Jurors can now not be punished for their decision. Courts also cannot
Describe the Role and Power of Magistrates.
GCSE Law (Magistrates) - Michael Godfrey Student Number: 16947 Describe the Role and Power of Magistrates There are exactly 30,374 lay magistrates in England and Wales, 15,858 men and 14,516 women (at the time of writing this essay), appointed by the Lord Chancellor or the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, in the name of the Crown (figures from the Lord Chancellor's Organization UK). Magistrates are ordinary members of the community who sit in the Magistrates' Courts and who dispense justice at the lowest level of the English court system. They are unpaid for what they do and therefore are not servants of the Crown. This supports their position of impartiality between the Crown and the public whom they serve. English lay magistrates are not learned in the law - they do not hold legal qualifications, nor have they formally studied law to any level other than that which they may have done at school. There may be some exceptions - there are legal professionals who are also lay magistrates - but the vast majorities are just ordinary members of the public. They do, however, undergo a vast amount of training so that they can perform their judicial functions correctly and within the law. There are three Magistrates (also known as justices of peace) who make decisions in court. Only one magistrate has very limited powers e.g. warrants. Magistrates take part in summery trials,
Judicial precedent. . Give another name for judicial precedent. Case law is another name for judicial precedent. 2. What is judicial precedent? Preceding cases/trials setting new legal principals for cases to follow and developing them along the way. 3. Name two major developments which assisted development of judicial precedent. The judicature acts 1873-75 (laid down modern hierarchy of courts) and the development of an efficient system of law reporting (creation of the council of law reporting - 1865). 4. What is Res Judicate? The judge's decision. 5. What is the ratio decidendi? The reason for the judges decision 6. What is obiter dicta? Matters spoken by the way. 7. When a legal principal is established, what is it known as? It is known as precedent. 8. What is binding precedent? Precedent that binds courts below it. I.e. the House of Lords binds the Court of Appeal, the Court of Appeal binds the Divisional Court etc. 9. What is persuasive precedent? Decisions not binding on the lower courts but may strongly influence their decisions and use them as support. 0. Explain how the system of binding precedent works in relation to the following courts; (The House of Lords; its decisions are binding on all lower courts, in the 20th century it had regarded itself as bound by its own decisions until the 1966 practice statement which allows them to depart from their
In 1995, Edgar inherited a property 'The Shambles' from his brother. Three years later, he sold it for £120, 000 and used his proceeds towards the purchase of 'Hanging Gardens', a large residential house with a florists shop attached. He took out a mortgage secured over 'Hanging Gardens' for £300, 000. The property was registered at the Land Registry in his sole name. Edgar moved in with his long term girlfriend, Angelica. Angelica paid the legal costs, stamp duty, Land tax and Land registration fees, together with the removal firm's costs. She also purchased new carpets and curtains for the property. When they moved in, the couple spent many evenings discussing plans for their home and the florist shop. Initially, Edgar and Angelica shared all the household expenses. After a few months, Angelica resigned from her full-time job to work in the florists shop. She did not recieve any pay for the first 10 months to enable the business to become established. During this time she was supported by Edgars income and he paid the household expenses. In 2002, Angelica gave birth to the couples child, kelly. Edgar employed a sales assistant in the shop to enable Angelica to be a full time mother. Angelica did the housework, decorating and shopping and cared for Kelly. In 2004, Angelica used the proceeds of sale of her car to pay for a new central heating boiler and
Law and Justice
Law and Justice The law is a set of standardised procedures and mechanisms used in the enforcement of basic rights and the regulation of society. Sir John Salmond defined law 'the principles used in the administration of justice' Justice is more difficult to define than law. Basically, it can be viewed as 'the principle of fairness', but this then leads to a discussion of what 'fairness' means. This has led to many differing definitions of justice being put forward. There are two main ideas of justice - procedural and substantive. Procedural justice views something as just if the correct procedures are followed, even if the procedures are not fair to begin with. Supporters of procedural justice say that for there to be justice it is important that everyone is treated in the same way and has the same rights. However, it is sometimes the case that it is not 'fair' for everyone to have the same rights. For example, the right to represent yourself is an important right, but is it appropriate in rape cases for the defendant to be able to cross-examine his alleged victim? This example shows that law sometimes has to modify procedural justice in order to achieve real justice. Another example of a difficulty arising in practice is the case of Dianne Pretty who was in the final stages of motor neurone disease and wanted her husband to help her die to avoid a distressing and
Law Coursework By Monica A 10s Due date: 17th December 07 Part A: Describe trial by jury within the English legal system The English Legal system began in the year 1215 under the Magna Carta, which was then signed by King John. Pursuant to Article 39 of the Magna Carta: "No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, unless by legal judgement of his peers, or by the law of land" The English legal system falls into two categories, firstly, criminal law as to where the State accuses someone of a crime affecting the whole community. This is called prosecution with the case taking place in the Magistrates' Court or the Crown Court. The second law is the Civil Law where instead of this affecting the community it affects the individuals within the community. A civil law will then be called into action or a claim. This is the conclusion of the English legal system and its historical background. Jury trial is only allowed in four types of civil cases. These are as follows: fraud, defamation, malicious prosecution and False imprisonment. The Supreme Court Act 1981 (section 69), allows for juries to be used in these cases mentioned above. More serious crimes however are tried in the Crown Court. The Crown Court deals with more serious criminal offences trialled by judge and jury. While Lay Magistrates sit in the Magistrates court,
Police Powers The main police powers are set out in Police and criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984. Powers to Stop and Search * S1 - Gives the police the right to stop and search people and vehicles in a public place BUT only if there are REASONABLE GROUNDS for suspecting that the person is in possession of stolen goods or prohibited articles (eg. Weapons). * There are safeguards. The police officer must give: - . His name. 2. Station. 3. Reasons for the search. * In Osman v DPP - officers did not give their names and station hence the court held this made the search unlawful. * If the search is in public, police can only request that the suspect removes his outer layer of clothing (coat, jacket, gloves) - S2. * Police officer must make a written report after the search * Code A - states that police officers must not act because of person's characteristics. Still evidence that certain types of people are more likely to be stopped than other groups (eg. Black youths). * Police officers can also stop and search under other Acts (eg. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Prevention of Terrorism Act 1989). Powers to Search Premises - (with a search warrant). * Police can enter premises without the occupier's permission to make a search if a warrant authorising the search has been issued by a Magistrate. This is contained in S8. A warrant must: - . State the premises to be