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As you increase the concentration of Carbon Dioxide, this results in an increase in the rate of photosynthesis.

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Introduction

Biology Coursework: The effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) on the rate of photosynthesis Hypothesis: As you increase the concentration of Carbon Dioxide, this results in an increase in the rate of photosynthesis. Introduction and Background: An overall and common equation for photosynthesis is: Light Energy 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 carbon + water in the presence glucose + oxygen dioxide of chlorophyll (B1) The process of photosynthesis transfers light energy into chemical potential energy of organic molecules. It is the fixation of carbon dioxide and its subsequent reduction to carbohydrate (glucose), using hydrogen from water. Leaf structure (B1) * The Palisade Mesophyll is the main site of photosynthesis. There are more chloroplasts here than there are in Spongy Mesophyll. * Palisade cells show many adaptations of gaseous exchange. > Palisade cells are cylindrical shaped. They pack together with long narrow air spaces between them giving a large surface area of the contact between the cell and the air. > The cell walls of the palisade cells are thin. This way, the gas can diffuse through much easily. * The Spongy Mesophyll is adapted for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. > The spongy Mesophyll has irregular packing of cells so that air can move around them. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore the cycle has to go around six times. During this cycle, 6CO2, 6RuBP and 12 NADPH2 are used. Enzymes * During the Calvin cycle, RuBP is carboxylated with CO2 with the assistance of the enzyme Rubisco (also known as RuBP Carboxylase). * However, if there is a high concentration of substrate, the rate of reaction would reach a plateau. * Because all of the enzyme would be unavailable as they would be reacting with other substrates. Rate of Reaction Substrate Concentration A: There is an increasing rate of reaction. Substrate molecules are binding to active sites at a rapid rate. Reason being, that there is a high probability than an enzyme's active site will collide with a substrate molecule. B: The active sites are beginning to become unavailable. Many substrate molecules have and still are binding to the active sites. C: There is too much substrate. The enzymes are working at a maximum rate. It is unable to handle the amount of substrate, as there are no more vacant active sites left. Other substrate molecules have occupied them all. Variables In this experiment, there are three constants and one variable. ...read more.

Conclusion

17. Repeat steps 4 - 16 at least two more times in order to obtain more accurate results. Work out an average of the three readings. 18. Carry out the experiment with all different concentrations of NaHCO3 [0.05 mol dm-3, 0.1 mol dm-3 0.2 mol dm-3, 0.3 mol dm-3, 0.4 mol dm-3] Justification The Elodea is left to equilibrate in the boiling tube filled with N, because it needs time to adapt to the conditions. I.e. adapting to the temperature of 300C A syringe is used in this experiment. This ensures precision as it is better than counting the oxygen bubbles. If you count the bubble, it is very easy to miscount them. Some bubbles may even be too small to see. Whereas when using the syringe, the total volume of oxygen is collected and it is easier to measure. Distilled water is used as it contains no impurities. E.g. No extra carbon dioxide. Cut the stem of the Elodea under water to prevent any air locks. This will ensure water enters the leaf without effecting photosynthesis. Reliability To ensure reliability, it is important that this experiment is repeated at least three times. This will give you an average, making the results more accurate. Use the same species of Elodea for each experiment. Precision The lamp should remain at a constant distance and have a constant intensity. I.e. ...read more.

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