"The Biological Perspective"
"The Biological Perspective" The relationship between mind and body, and the influence of heredity on human behaviour are two main objectives of the biological approach to psychology. Before the concept of the brain being the seat of the soul was introduced, the vital organs of the human body were considered to be the heart and the liver,a point of view widely accepted amongst the inhabitant of incient Egypt. The theory of the brain being the seat of the soul was introduced by Alcmacon and later confirmed by Plato. Hippocrates emphasized that the brain was organ of intellect and controlled senses and movement, he suggested that a mental or behavioral disorder could be caused by physical dysfuntion and not possesed by evil spirits. Dualism was an assumption put forward by Descartes, it was a rather radical idea. The theory dualism implied the distinction of mind and body, and that the two of them could interact(via the pineal gland in the brain). But dualism was rejected by today's researchers in the biological approach because of another theory called Materialsm. The assumption that all behaviour has a physical basis. In 1745 a French phisician wrote a book called "The Natural History of the Soul" which was based on the fact that body is not just a machine, the soul is not different from the mind and that the mind was part of the body. Evantually In 1981, the view of
I chose to investigate the behaviour of woodlice in a wet or dry environment.
David Bennett 1DSM Coursework: Behaviour of Wood Lice When Offered a choice Between Wet and Dry In the experiment I was offered the choice to investigate the behaviour of woodlice in a wet or dry environment or a light or dark environment. I chose to investigate the behaviour of woodlice in a wet or dry environment. Woodlice belong to the biological class crustacea. Most of the animals in this class are aquatic, and though the terrestrial species can breathe with the aid of primitive 'lungs' they lack the features found in most other land-dwelling arthropods. They have no waterproof waxy cuticle on their exo-skeleton and are therefore more likely to suffer from dessication compared with other arthropods such as insects which have a well developed waxy layer. These animals excrete their nitrogenous waste as ammonia gas directly thorough their exo-skeleton (rather than as urea or uric acid).This means that their exo-skeleton needs to be permeable to ammonia and is therefore also permeable to water vapour. In my experiment I am testing whether the woodlice prefer the environment to be wet or dry. I predict that they will prefer it wet rather than dry. I think this because when you find them in the wild, they are in dark damp places like under big rocks or a log. Method First of all in my experiment I will set up a 'choice chamber' with wet cotton wool under one side
Human activities pollute air, water and land in different ways.
By Arran Roberts Contents Page Title 2 ..........................................................Contents 3..........................................................Loss Of Habitat 5...........................................................Human Activities 7............................................................Solutions Loss of Habitat The amount of land available for animals and plants is reduced by Man's land use, mainly activities such as quarrying, building, farming and dumping waste. Quarrying is a major threat to plants which grow specifically in rocky areas, such as yellow larkspur and American Hart's-Tongue Fern. Plants of this nature are becoming more difficult to find as more quarries appear. (Lakeside daisy threatened by limestone quarrying) Building is a large cause of loss of habitat, towns and cities are outwardly expanding and more land is being used for housing and other large scale building projects such as shopping malls and new roads. Draining of swamps and wetlands and deforestation are also greatly contributed to by building. Loss of habitat and habitat fragmentation are areas of major concern in species conservation, building often results in large areas of habitat being broken up into a series of smaller areas, each of which will support fewer species. (Building site) Farming and agriculture reduce amounts of
The Gower Peninsula
Biology Coursework Field Studies The Gower Peninsula Introduction Before deciding on what to do for my main investigation, I decided to carry out a preliminary investigation on two different beaches. One was sheltered and one was an exposed beach. This preliminary investigation will give me some knowledge of the variety of species on the beaches from which I will choose one to concentrate on in my main field study. I chose a site close to Mumbles, which is near Swansea in Wales as the site for the investigation because there is a sheltered and an exposed beach very close to one another in that area. One is exposed to the powerful waves of the Atlantic Ocean while the other is sheltered by a bay. I will also observe the changes in species abundances to give me an idea of where the different zones on the beaches are and so help me further with choosing my main investigation. Preliminary Investigation I will be using a transect technique to record my data, this way the investigation could be repeated easily as the method is simple and allows for a margin of error. There are three types of transect but I have decided to use a belt transect for the following reasons. A line transect involves recording data along the whole length of the beach, from upper shore to lower shore, which is impractical given our time limit of between five and ten hours to record our data. A point
Practical: the effect of caffeine on heart rate.
Practical: the effect of caffeine on heart rate. In order to investigate the effect of caffeine on the heart rate, we used a tiny multicellular freshwater crustacean which is widely used for biological research. The daphnia species have a transparent body and a projecting head. They entail a pair of pronged antennae used primarily for swimming while also entailing a single compound eye. A daphnia has a divide of the head which lies between the head and the abdomen and five pairs of these form an efficient filter-feeding mechanism. Caffeine is a bitter alkaloid used in coffee that is responsible for their stimulating effects. Caffeine binds to receptors on the surface of heart muscle cells which leads to a faster heartbeat. Considering the effect caffeine has on humans, it is likely that the effect will be similar. It stimulates our heart to beat faster, so I predict that the effect on daphnia will most likely be the same if not more prominent in Daphnia die to their large surface area to mass ratio. I can predict that the heart rate will also increase, similar to a human and furthermore, the increase will probably be steeper when shown in a graph due to the miniscule size of a daphnia. Overall, I believe that a daphnia subjected to caffeine will show a rise in heart rate. The more caffeine in the solution should reflect the concentration in heart beat. To carry
Should whale hunting be banned?
Should whale hunting be banned The debate over whale hunting has raged for a number of decades. I will investigate both sides of the argument and decide for myself through my research which side to take. Whale hunting, formally known as whaling, has many benefits but also has major effects on the endangered species. For me to take sides I will first need to explore all different points of views and understand the reason why different people have different opinions on the topic of the banning of whaling in the world. Commercial whaling was banned globally in 1982, but Iceland, Japan and Norway continue to hunt under under the guise of scientific research, collectively targeting more than 2,000 whales each year.The IWC does not have the capacity to enforce the moratorium. Sea Shepherd, guided by the United Nations World Charter for Nature, is the only organization whose mission is to enforce these international conservation regulations on the high seas. For One of the biggest reasons in favour for a ban is the conservation of whales. Many see killing whales to the extent or near extinction is morally wrong. That's why blue whales are not being hunted whereas minke whales. Many question the if Japan continue whale hunting for cultural reasons rather than scientific. Whales are hunted by explosive harpoons. Anti-whaling campaigners say the method of killing is cruel.
An investigation into the antibiotic effects of penicillin and streptomycin on the bacterium Escherichia coli
Risk Assessment: Risks related to substances, apparatus or procedures Precautions to be taken Contamination of microbes: To prevent this, it will be important to follow sterile techniques throughout. I will be wearing gloves at all times during the handling of the microbes. I will also take utmost care when handling the cultures that I do not drop them, as this could easily cause them to spread if the container being used, were to break open. For example, the microbes could spread aerobically. It would also be a good idea to work near a Bunsen burner at all times so that an updraft of air is created, causing constant airflow and therefore less chance of unwanted pathogens from settling in the microbial cultures. An investigation into the antibiotic effects of penicillin and streptomycin on the bacterium Escherichia coli. Aim: To plan an investigation into the antibiotic effects of penicillin and streptomycin on the behaviour of the bacterium E. coli. Introduction: I will be carrying out this experiment to find out which antibiotic (penicillin G or Streptomycin) is more effective at killing the bacterium E. coli. This information could be useful to a number of people, but an investigation of this nature would prove most useful to members within the medical profession. This is due to the fact that it would enable them to treat patients with more knowledge and
Ocr Biology B3-Animal Extinction
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel (genus Sciurus). A tree-dwelling omnivorous rodent, the red squirrel is common throughout Eurasia. In Great Britain, numbers have decreased drastically in recent years, in part due to the introduction of the Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) from North America The red squirrel may have only ten years unless a vaccine is found to protect it from squirrel pox. Red squirrels have reddish-brown fur with a white chest and, in winter, they have characteristic long, red tufts of fur on top of their ears. Red squirrels spend almost all their time in the treetops and rarely come down to the ground. High up in the branches, they build nests called dreys out of twigs nibbled off trees which they line with moss, dried leaves or grass. At the moment the MP calls for support on the red squirrel. David Maclean, former Tory chief whip and MP for Penrith and the Border, said a select committee inquiry was needed because Government policy was in disarray, with Government departments and agencies north and south of the Scottish border pursuing different strategies, none of which were working. Grey squirrels, which carry the squirrel pox virus that is fatal to reds, recently caused the death of red squirrels at one of their last redoubts on the sands at Sefton in Lancashire, while in
Human activities can impose far-reaching effects on the environment
Over the last two hundred years, the human population has grown exponentially. In the process of trying to satisfy the needs of these growing numbers, we have changed our planet; for example, millions of hectares of forests have been cleared to supply timber and land for homes and agriculture, deserts have grown, some rivers have dried up, and the air and oceans have been polluted. The Second World War reminded many countries of the importance maintaining self-sufficiency in basic foods, In the UK, between 1945 and the mid-1980s; the overriding aim of agricultural policy was to increase production. Food production is the oldest industry of all. Without a source of food and energy, there can be no life, and it is perhaps not surprising that humans have drastically altered the natural environment in order to grow more food. The nature of agriculture in the UK changed more during these 50 years than it had done in the previous two centuries. Such changes had profound environmental effects (Figure 1.1 and 1.2) The result of all these changes has been that agriculture has become more intensive, producing higher yields per acre by relying on greater chemicals use and technological inputs. It also has become more expensive, relying on purchase of machinery and chemicals to replace the heavy labour requirements of the past. To remain competitive, farmers have been forced to become
Investigating adaptation, competition and zonation of barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Balanus balanoides (Linneas) on a semi-exposed southwestern seashore.
Investigating adaptation, competition and zonation of barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Balanus balanoides (Linneas) on a semi-exposed southwestern seashore. Victoria Privett, Plymouth High School for Girls. Introduction Invasions of ecosystems by exotic species are increasing, especially in aquatic environments. Barnacles populate the coastlines of countries around the world. Specifically in Britain, we have two main types, which along the southwestern coastline have become distinguished for their different zones. Within this competition for feeding and survival, there is not substantial vertical overlap. This investigation is viable when talking about the competition of species. One of the most famous ecological field studies is that by Joseph Connell on the rocky shores of Scotland. The distribution of two competing species of barnacles, Balanus balanoides and Chthamalus stellatus, has shown to depend on physiology (tolerance of desiccation) and predation as well as aggressive competition by Balanus. (image1) Biology behind my investigation As Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) has migrated to the British Isles, the competition between the native British barnacle, Balanus balanoides (Linneas) has become evididnt. There is clear zonation between the two species, with little overlay due to the diverse habitats at which the barnacles have become adapted. The main