The advice is valid. The speech seems to be planned. It reveals that Polonius (though be hypocritical) is trying to prevent his son from making the same mistakes he made.
Polonius and Laertes have different reasons for opposing Ophelia's interest in Hamlet.
Polonius' reason is mainly for Ophelia's safety. Polonius asks her about her relationship with Hamlet. She tells him that Hamlet claims to love her. Polonius sternly echoes Laertes' advice, and forbids Ophelia to associate with Hamlet anymore. He tells her that Hamlet has deceived her in swearing his love, and that she should see through his false vows and rebuff his affections. Ophelia pledges to obey.
· Scene IV:
Hamlet explains that the new king is spending the night carousing, as is the Danish custom. Disgusted, Hamlet declares that this sort of custom is better broken than kept, saying that the king's revelry makes Denmark a laughingstock among other nations and lessens the Danes' otherwise impressive achievements.
Act I, scene iv also continues the development of the motif of the ill health of Denmark. Hamlet views the king's carousing as a further sign of the state's corruption, commenting that alcohol makes the bad aspects of a person's character overwhelm all of his or her good qualities.
Hamlet's response to the ghost is a very curious one
Oh angels, protect us! Whether you're a good spirit or a cursed demon, whether you bring heavenly breezes or blasts of hell fire, whether your intentions are good or evil, you look so strange I want to talk to you. I'll call you "Hamlet Senior," "King," "Father," "royal Dane." Answer me! Don't drive me crazy with curiosity, but tell me why your church-buried bones have burst out of their coffin, and why your tomb, he declares that he cares nothing for his life and that, if his soul is immortal, the ghost can do nothing to harm his soul.
"my faith cries out"= It's my fate calling me.
Finally, the reappearance of the still-silent ghost brings with it a return of the theme of spirituality, truth, and uncertainty, or, more specifically, the uncertainty of truth in a world of spiritual ambiguity. Since Hamlet does not know what lies beyond death, he cannot tell whether the ghost is truly his father's spirit or whether it is an evil demon come from hell to tempt him toward destruction. This uncertainty about the spiritual world will lead Hamlet to wrenching considerations of moral truth. These considerations have already been raised by Hamlet's desire to kill himself in Act I
And the appearance of the ghost is again seen as a sign of Denmark's decay, this time by Marcellus, who famously declares, "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" (I.iv.67).
"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark."
This line is spoken by Marcellus in Act I, scene iv (67), as he and Horatio debate whether or not to follow Hamlet and the ghost into the dark night. The line refers both to the idea that the ghost is an ominous omen for Denmark and to the larger theme of the connection between the moral legitimacy of a ruler and the health of the state as a whole. The ghost is a visible symptom of the rottenness of Denmark created by Claudius's crime.
Polonius makes an accord with Reynaldo to spy on Laertes while he’s at school in Paris. The language of the scene is pretty serious—they are conducting business. The scene is shocking, since you don’t know before that Polonius is not a good guy. Other places where people spy are Polonius and King Claudius spying on Hamlet and Ophelia, Hamlet spying on King Claudius in the confessional booth, and Polonius spying on Hamlet and Gertrude before Hamlet murders him.
Her reaction shows her lack of affections and her naivety. Since Polonius also believe that because of Ophelia’s love Hamlet has gone insane, he becomes a fool. The “Ecstasy of love” is not a very logical interpretation of Hamlet’s actions and because Ophelia and Polonius come to this conclusion, they themselves are fools.
They tell Rosencrantz and Guildenstern of Hamlet’s transformation and ask them to basically go upon Hamlet’s favors and state what the “unknown afflicts him thus.” (33 Shakespeare) The thanks that the King and Queen are giving Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are thanks “as fits a king’s remembrance,” (34) ultimately thanks fit for a king implying the promise of wealth, fame, stature.
“I have found the very cause of Hamlet’s lunacy” (pg 34). Gertrude replies that “his father’s death and our o’erhasty marriage” caused his madness (pg. 35).
Voltimand and Cornelius report that the King of Norway thought that Fortinbras’s actions were against Poland—not Denmark—so he called Fortinbras back to Norway and made Fortinbras promise he wouldn’t go attack Denmark as long as King Claudius gave them free passage.
Polonius continues to justify himself and tries to make him look good under the King and Queen by stalling his announcement. The Queen eventually mutters to hurry up and get to the point.
Polonius’ reading of Hamlet’s notes to Ophelia essentially foreshadows his own death in that he overanalyzes the relationships of his children basically leading to their downfall in the loss of the relationship and his ultimate downfall in consequence.
Polonius wants to prove King Claudius right when he says Polonius is “faithful and honourable” by telling the King what he knows (pg.37). The queen believes “it may be; very like.”
Fishmonger: Everyday person or common man
Honest: Hamlet knows about how corrupt Polonius is
Kissing Carrion: Polonius kisses up to the King and Queen
Conception: Hamlet had an affair with Ophelia
Words or Reading: Words are lies
Old Men: Polonius and Claudius are old men.
Crab: Polonius is being sneaky like a crab and he’s talking sideways
Air/grave: How closely related life and death are
The Fortune represents Gertrude because he refers to her shoes (her husband) that she traded in so quickly and her cap (her crown) exemplifying the imperial jointress. The reference to honesty serves to show that Hamlet knows about Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s deal with the King and uses this reference to mock them. Hamlet equates Denmark as a prison because he is trapped in Denmark by Claudius and continues to lose his friends and family. He states that Claudius’s ambition drove him to kill King Hamlet. He also states that while King Hamlet was a hero, Claudius is a simple beggar whom once he kills the hero, Claudius becomes the hero. Dreams and shadows represent deception and bring on the “seems” motif because the ghost represents the dreams that told the truth while Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Hamlet’s shadows, constantly following him.
The opposing views of human nature that Hamlet presents are shown through his statement of “what a piece of work is a man!” a reference to Plato. His reference then to ‘admirable’ humans, men and his comparison to angels through the phrase ‘how like an angel,’ exemplifies the idea of the godlike presence of man. Although the opposing view of man is later stated through the statement that men is the “quintessence of dust.” Basically, stating that in the end, men still do become dust, that they are not godlike.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are trying to trick Hamlet into telling them the truth about what is going on with him. Then when Hamlet says “I know a hawk from a handsaw,” he means that he knows who is deceptive and who is not refined (knows who is against him).
Shakespeare satirizes actors who think they are good at everything in Polonius’s introduction. The exchange about Jephthah means that Polonius sacrificed Ophelia’s happiness with Hamlet for his own happiness working with the King and Queen.
It does because in the play, the King dies by another’s sword during a duel while the Queen also falls. This mimics Hamlet’s actions for he kills Claudius but Gertrude is accidentally poisoned by Claudius and dies.
Themes prevalent are the following: dreams, vengeance, justice, revenge, filial piety, Inaction, suffering. The images that are dominant are that of Hecuba and to that of the previous played just performed alluding to the Trojan Kingdom. In comparison to the first soliloquy, the second soliloquy references Hamlet’s inaction while the first references women’s frailty in terms of Gertrude.
Claudius, the queen, Polonius, Ophelia, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern are plotting against Hamlet. The plan is to spy on hamlet to see what is wrong with him and if the problem is his love for Ophelia.
(Pg. 53) He is having an internal conflict about whether or not to commit suicide. He figures it is the only way to escape his reality. “To be or not to be” can mean either a debate about whether or not to commit suicide or a debate on whether or not to kill Claudius. He is having terrible nightmares and just wants all of this to ne other. Shuffled off=Claudius messes things up. Theme: death, unsure.
Mood of soliloquy=mad, upset, betrayal. He is mad at Ophelia for betraying him and attempts to push her away so she does not have to deal with his madness. Beauty hides dishonest=paradox. Symbolism=nunnery=harlot, common. Ophelia still loves him and thinks he is going crazy.
(pg. 56) Claudius and Polonius believe that Hamlet is going crazy and must be sent away. He cannot kill him in Denmark because 1) he is King Hamlet’s son 2) he is married to his mother and 3) the public likes him. The king knows that Hamlet is not acting like that because he is in love with Ophelia.
To be able to prove that Claudius did kill Hamlet’s father, he lectures to the players that the play must be perfect. The play, “the mouse trap,” is a paradigm of life. He is catching the conscious of the king (pg. 57).
(pg. 59) Hamlet reveals to Horatio what he learned from the ghost, but does not reveal that Claudius actually murdered his father. He asks Horatio to watch what type of reaction Claudius has to the play. Hamlet trusts him because he is his friend.
Polonius acted in the university and played Julius Caesar. The Julius Caesar allusion foreshadows his death (pg. 60).
Hamlet does not act with respect to Ophelia. Hamlet’s purpose for doing this is to push her away to keep her safe. She is upset and confused by his actions.
(pg. 64) The play is called “mousetrap” because Hamlet is trying to catch Claudius. Pantomime is used because it is a sign of the times and also to catch the king off guard. The play within a play is the same events that are happening in Hamlet’s life. The players have recorders, which comes I appropriately when Hamlet says “you would play on me” to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.
Polonius plays along with Hamlet’s mockery, although here are no clouds. Polonius looks like a fool. Weasel=sneaky, Whale=not powerful.
Witching time is midnight and foreshadows that something to happen. There is a dramatic tension because he is extremely mean to his mother.
Claudius has control over the country and power over Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Claudius tells them that hamlet can no longer roam around the castle and must go to England. They must escort him and give a commission (letter) for his death (pg. 68).
(pg. 69) King Claudius soliloquy. The players call the play the “Murder of Ganzogo.” Claudius cannot pray because he will not admit to the murder. Yet, guilt becomes too much and he wants to be pure. He neglected duty as brother. Allusion to Macbeth: “out, out damn spot” showing guilt. He was able to achieve a “two fold force” meaning the throne, queen, and is not willing to give that up. “Fair is fouls and foul is fair” is smell bad. It seems opposite at the beginning of the play because hamlet was wearing black and Claudius was happy and appeared to be a good king, he is now foul. “My crown, mine own ambition, and my queen,” represents greed, lust, and envy.
(pg. 72) In this dialogue, when referring to the king, Hamlet is talking about his father, while the mother is talking about Claudius. Glass=mirror=real reflection of who she is. Hamlet tells his mother what Claudius did. Counterfeit brother=Claudius. Mars is the God of war and can defeat Denmark. King Hamlet is a man and can control and defeat the state. Blindness=queen. There is no passion at her age, not a young child. She must be looking for a companionship. His mother is like wax, easily wooed and persuaded. The tone is aggressive.
Hamlet thinks that Polonius is a fool and a nosy person who likes to eavesdrop. He is like a court jester or clown.
The ghost appears again to remind Hamlet to avenge his death and have him stayed focused.
He feels remorseful, but at the same time, he is in the killing moos and may kill Claudius. He must be cruel to avenge his father. He also tells Gertrude that he is not crazy.
“Two crafts directly meet”= 1) Hamlet’s quest for revenge 2) Claudius attempt to get rid of Hamlet. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern cannot be trusted since they have a letter for England and are sent by the king.
Gertrude does not keep the promise she makes to Hamlet because she believes that Hamlet has gone crazy. She decides to tell Claudius.
They help him by pretending to be Hamlet’s friends and spy on him.
Page 81. Hamlet calls Rosencrantz a sponge because he is easily manipulated by the King and his orders and is oblivious to the fact that the King is plotting the kill Hamlet. His two friends do not understand him because Hamlet is more educated than them. This scene is high comedy because of the puns and double entendres that Hamlet mentions. Hamlet is talking sense and not madness because he is more educated and respectable. He knows that no one can fool him.
Hamlet is a spreading disease that needs to be sent away for the good of everyone in Denmark.
Prince Hamlet states that Polonius is at dinner, or rather that he is being eaten. He states that we all will eventually become maggots, and that Claudius' reign is insignificant. This passage where Hamlet states that Polonius is at dinner also parallels the way that King Claudius came into power. Claudius killed King Hamlet, and then came to become King Claudius, by marrying Queen Gertrude.
He calls Claudius a mother in order to emasculate him in comparison to King Hamlet.
He says “like the hectic in my blood he rages”, which means that Hamlet is the sickness in his blood. He wants to cure himself and kill the young Hamlet.
Page 84 Fortinbras' appearance is dramatic because it shows the direction correlation between Fortinbras and Hamlet. They are foil characters of one another because they have both lost their fathers.
Hamlet and Fortinbras are foil characters: Fortinbras is a man of action and Hamlet is a man of words. Hamlet wants to be like Fortinbras and take revenge on his father's death.
The reaction that comes from this soliloquy of Prince Hamlet is that he is going from a person who “hath but one part wisdom and ever three parts coward,” (Shakespeare 85) to a man of action and decision, and thinks “thoughts [that] be bloody, or nothing worth.” (Shakespeare 86). Here Hamlet states that he is three parts coward, three represents the father the son and the holy ghost, which represent religion, which has been what forces Prince Hamlet not to kill King Claudius because it is an sin, but because now Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has already sinned and become a man of action, and kill King Claudius. Through Hamlet's irony, Shakespeare truly states that Fortinbras is actually a good fighter
She does not want to see Ophelia because Ophelia has gone insane. Horatio persuades her to see Ophelia by saying that it’s dangerous to others if she doesn’t see her.
Her relationship with Hamlet.
Ophelia makes Claudius realize the state that he is in. He realizes all of the wrong doing that has been committed and wants to redeem himself. But like Hamlet, his is a man of inaction when it comes to saving his reputation.
They believe Laertes is a more honorable person and should have the thrown. He also has a "righteous" armed force that will keep Denmark safe.
The subject of Ophelia’s song is the death of Polonius, and her love and lust for Hamlet. The first song refers to her lover and the second talks about the death of Polonius through “he is dead and gone”. Her third song refers to Ophelia sleeping with Hamlet and sneaking around to do so by expressing that it is “Saint Valentine’s day”
He promises her an up in status so he will kill Hamlet.
· Scene VI
Deus ex machine: the pirates allow Hamlet’s sudden return; he tells Horatio to give the letters to the king.
Hamlet says that his ship was captured by pirates, who have returned him to Denmark. He asks Horatio to escort the sailors to the king and queen, for they have messages for them as well. He also says that he has much to tell of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Horatio takes the sailors to the king and then follows them to find Hamlet, who is in the countryside near the castle.
· Scene VII
Claudius tells Laertes that Hamlet is the one who kill his noble father and wishes to pursue Claudius life as well. Claudius makes Laertes feel guilty for his father's death. Proposal-Claudius wants Laertes to kill Hamlet by poison.
Claudius is surprised that Hamlet is coming back, but is glad because now Laertes can get his revenge and Hamlet will dies in the end. Helmet is seen as sane because he asks for forgiveness and secretly asks for forgiveness towards killing Claudius
She dies by drowning. Her clothing is white which shows the symbol of purity and the water symbolizes her worries being washed away because she does not have to worry about Hamlet or Polonius.
He is not overly emotional because he says “he forbids his tears”, and he plans to avenge his father’s death.
· Scene I
They complain that she "willfully seeks her own salvation" meaning that she killed herself, which is a sin. pg 101
He is drunkenly singing which is very inappropriate given that he is also digging a grave. he and Hamlet have many double entendres throughout this scene bringing low comedy thus the name for the grave diggers of "clowns." Hamlet and the gravedigger are talking about what happens when people die and how it doesn't matter who you are when you are dead it doesn't matter. It reflects a somewhat cynical viewpoint on human existence. It is all worthless when you die. See 102-106
Hamlet is 30 years old the first clown says that "I came to't that day that our last King Hamlet o'ercame Fortinbras...It was the very day that young Hamlet was born...Why, here in Denmark. I have been sexton here, man and boy, thirty years." Pg 105
Yorick was a court jester to King Hamlet, but he was very dear to Hamlet as a young child. He and Hamlet were close friends. The significance of this is that Yorick, being a jester, was a commoner, and many of Hamlet's true friends (such as Horatio) were commoners. Therefore, Hamlet was well liked by the common folk of Denmark because he was seen as one of their own.
Horatio says that people, even those humans who were great--such as Alexander the Great--eventually return to the dust from which they came from. Thus, the circle of life continues. This also portrays the theme of naturalism.
Laertes is arguing with the priest because the priest is saying that Ophelia is damned because of her suicide. Laertes, being the loving brother that he is, thinks that it is quite the contrary. He says that while the priest is suffering in hell, Ophelia will be an angel in heaven.
Gertrude reveals that Ophelia should have been with Hamlet. She means it as she shows real grief after her meeting with Hamlet.
Laertes shows his grief by demanding that he be buried with Ophelia.
Hamlet is sincere. Yes, his actions are paralleled. His character has been deeply affected by his travels.
· Scene II
How he escaped the ship and has the horrible revelation that the king was trying to kill him, having read the letter with the order that "[his] head should be struck off" pg 110 and he tells of how he wrote a new letter saying to kill Guildenstern and Rosencrantz instead. 110-111
He is not sad that they are dead at all saying that "they made love to this employment. They are not near my conscience." Pg 111
He thinks that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are very duplicitous and that it was their own fault and I agree from his point of view, most likely thinking that they knew the contents of the letter that they should be killed but if they didn't know it was a cruel decision. Also, Hamlet thinks that he must kill the king and I agree with that as well. Pg 11
He means that the business/obligation is his and that what needs to be done in Denmark he must himself do.
The reference of he being like hamlet but different, thus a foil character in the lines"That to Laertes I forgot myself". For by the image of my cause I see/ The portraiture of his." (112) showing how they are similar in their causes. But also later showing that they will be in conflict as "the bravery of his grief did put me/ Into a towering passion." (112)
Osric is similar to Polonius because he is similarly obsequious and agrees with everything that Hamlet says. Hamlet teases and mocks Osric because he's bitter toward his obsequious nature and finds him foolish. He teases him with sarcasm and contradicts everything he says and insulting him.
Hamlet reveals that he practiced all the time while in France and therefore has great skill at sword fighting. He therefore has false pride, as he is unaware of Laertes treachery.
What he means is that whatever is going to happen will happen now or later, so you may as well be ready for it.
When Hamlet apologizes to Laertes he uses sarcasm because he speaks from the third person perspective very dramatically and falsely.
Laetres lies because the whole time he is talking to Hamlet he secretly has poisoned his sword and is planning on unfairly murdering him.
Because he will be dying along with Laertes.
Since poison was the original instrument of murder, it is ironic that Claudius dies in a similar way that he killed King Claudius. This exemplifies a theme of what goes around comes around.
Laertes is confessing that to Gertrude that Claudius killed king Hamlet and that Claudius put poison on the sword and in the wine. He is expressing hope that he will be forgiven for confessing and repenting his sins.
He wishes he had time to take the crown from Claudius and be alive to rule his kingdom. He echoes King Hamlet's spirit who wishes he was still alive to rule Denmark.
Hamlet asks Horatio to do this because Hamlet is dying and needs Horatio to tell Fortinbras and the world what has occurred.
In this speech, Horatio speaks highly of Hamlet's character, honor as well as his courage. Horatio refers to Hamlet highly after his death, demanding that he be carried off to a proper burial.
The news that comes from England is that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead. Osric declares that Fortinbras has come in conquest from Poland and now fires a volley to the English ambassadors. The arrival of Fortinbras signifies the end of a corrupt era in Denmark.
He orders that the dead bodies be put on a platform and that he speaks about the story over time in Denmark.
The Denmark under Claudius was completely corrupted throughout where as the Denmark that could have been under Lord Hamlet would have been a stable society that may not have been infiltrated by Fortinbras. The Denmark headed by Fortinbras will most likely by very different than the others.
He understands that Hamlet was proven to be the most loyal. Fortinbras says " Such a sight as this Becomes the field, but here shows much amiss." He does not understand why he has died and killed if he is most loyal.