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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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Meet our team of inspirational teachers Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents 1.  ## FACTORS AFFECTING BOUNCINESS OF A PING PONG BALL

Now different surface have different state of hardness and texture. The harder the surface, the less energy will be lost by the ball and he higher it will bounce. Now, the smoother the surface the less energy will be dissipated through the surface (see laws of reflection), and the higher the ball will bounce. The coefficient of restitution is a measure of the elasticity of the collision between ball and floor. Elasticity is a measure of how much bounce there is, or in other words, how much of the kinetic energy of the colliding objects before the collision remains as kinetic energy of the objects after the collision.

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2. ## Physics Pendulum Internal assesment

Dependant Variable Independent Variable Controlled Variables Time Taken For 10 Oscillations Length Of String Weight of pendulum Angle from which ball is released Equipment * Stand * Boss * Clamp * String (at least 80cm) * 2 wooden blocks * Pendulum * Metre ruler * Stopwatch Diagram Method 1. Fix the string with the ball to a clamp as shown in the diagram above and afterwards the whole thing should look like the picture. 2. Practice timing and using the pendulum, make sure you measure as soon as the string passes through the centre point then out to the right,

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3. ## IB Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice Lab

* Heat gained or lost by a substance while melting = mass of the substance � specific latent heat of fusion of the substance The data shown in Table 1 is shown again in the following table, Table 2, but with some calculated values with their respective uncertainties (in bold) :- Table 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Mass of empty copper calorimeter (g) � 0.01 g 36.14 36.56 Mass of water and copper calorimeter (g) � 0.01 g 70.98 83.58 Mass of water (g)

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4. ## IB Specific Heat Capacity Lab

* Specific heat capacity of water = 4182 Jkg-1K-1 * Specific heat capacity of calorimeter = 385 Jkg-1K-1. HYPOTHESIS: Increase in the temperature of Water Bath will result in the increase of the total heat gained by water and calorimeter and vice versa. Heat gained by Water and Calorimeter Initial temperature of Solid (Bob) Temperature of Water Bath Assuming that the Equation of Thermal Equilibrium holds true and that no heat is lost to the environment the specific heat capacity of the solid can be calculated by: * MB � CB (T3 - T2) = (Mw � Cw (T2 - T1))

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5. ## DCP+CE Energy Density of Ethanol

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.63g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 4 162.24 - 161.56 = 0.68 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.68g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 5 161.56 - 160.84 = 0.72 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.72g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 6 160.84 - 160.10 = 0.74 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.74g�0.020g Change in temperature of the water =

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6. ## Investigate one factor affecting the terminal speed of spheres falling in a liquid

When the gravity force and the drag force become equal, the free falling object's velocity is called terminal velocity. This means that the acceleration of the object is constant. When the object accelerates, the drag force increases. At certain speed, the drag force becomes same as the mass of the object. At this point, the object's acceleration stops and it starts to free fall with the terminal velocity.

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7. ## Investigate the effect of changing the length of a pendulum on the period of oscillation of the pendulum.

� 7(0.02) = 26.62�0.14 Dividing absolute uncertainties (26.62�0.14)/7 = (26.62�0.53%)/7 = 3.80�0.53% = 3.80s � 0.02s Table 4. Time Taken per Period Length (m�0.01m) Calculation Time taken per period 0.10 0.76s � 4.03x10-3s 0.20 0.92s � 4.88x10-3s 0.30 1.16s � 6.15x10-3s 0.40 1.32s � 6.97x10-3s 0.50 1.51s � 8.02x10-3s Uncertainty for calculating period (3.80s�0.02s)/5 = (3.80�0.53%)/5 = 0.76�0.53% = 0.76s � 4.03x10-3s Graph 1. Period per Length The period of the pendulum could be calculated with the formula; Where T is the period, l is the length of the pendulum in meters, and g is the gravity which is 9.81m/s2.

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8. ## Energy Density of Ethanol

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.63g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 4 162.24 - 161.56 = 0.68 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.68g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 5 161.56 - 160.84 = 0.72 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.72g�0.02g Change in temperature of the water = 30�C�0.40�C 6 160.84 - 160.10 = 0.74 54 - 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.74g�0.020g Change in temperature of the water =

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9. ## IB Physics Lab - Resistance

For example, they are used in electronic equipment to limit the current that flows in them. * There are two main types of electrical circuits: series and parallel. In series circuits there is only one way for the current to flow, but in parallel circuits the current has multiple paths. * There are two formulas that are used in this lab: * 1) Equivalent resistance in series circuits = o In series circuits, the equivalent resistance (total resistance) is determined by simply adding all the resistors in that circuit. 2) Equivalent resistance in parallel circuits = o In parallel circuits, the equivalent resistance is determined by adding the reciprocals of each resistor and then taking the reciprocal of the sum.

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10. ## Thermal Properties of Liquids

Hence, using the Logger Pro apparatus and application and the Bunsen burner, I will find out the change in temperature over 2 minutes of heating. However, further calculations and data manipulation will be needed to find out its density and heating rate. This will be ensured through the use of the following two equations: All calculations and the recording of raw data (change in temperature and time) will be done through Microsoft Excel and the Logger Pro application. This will ensure that all my calculations are correct and precise.

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11. ## Lab Report - obtain the frequency of the simple pendulum and to analyze the effect of change in amplitude, length and mass on the frequency.

Clamp stand 1 4. Test tube clamp 1 5. String(200cm3) 1 6. Stopwatch 1 7. Meter stick 1 8. Metallic bob Theory: Simple pendulum, consist of a metallic bob, suspended by inextensible string from a rigid support .At the mean position, when the bob is at rest there is only gravitational force (g) acting on the bob this kept it at rest. When the horizontal force is applied on the bob then it moves towards its extreme position .From the extreme position it moves back to its mean position and move further to the extreme position on the other side and again back to its main position, this motion of simple pendulum, that is starting from mean position and back to it is known as ONE CYCLE.

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12. ## To test the ohmic and non-ohmic behavior in a resistor and a bulb

Material: - Bulb (6V, 0.05A) - Power supply - Voltmeter - Ammeter - Wires - Clamps Variables: Dependant variables: current Independent variables: voltage Controlled variables: Bulb, ammeter, voltmeter, power supply, wires. Method: 1. A wire was connected from power supply to the (mA) outlet of ammeter. 2. A second wire was connected from the (com) outlet of ammeter to the bulb. 3. A third wire was connected from power supply to bulb. 4. Two wires connected from bulb to voltmeter in parallel. One wire to the (v)

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13. ## Kinematics. Purpose: Using a Baseball, find how the velocity and acceleration change from when a baseball is thrown

Measure out 1 meter, 3 meters and 5 meters 2. Get a baseball 3. Go to a starting point 4. To toss the ball with a constant force from the 1 meter mark, record the time it takes, do this 4 more times at the 1 meter mark 5. Now move to the 3 meter mark, and repeat the steps in part 4 6. Then do it from 5 meters away, and repeat step 4 7. Using the Velocity Equation V= d/t, find the velocity of the baseball from the starting point, to each meter mark 8.

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14. ## Design Lab, Charge on Balloons

(Archimedes principle) Electric charge plays a key role in this experiment. Electric charge is the flow of electrons from point A to point B per unit time. In this case, the balloon is an excellent conducting medium for charged particles. One important factor in this experiment is the balloons. For each data point, a different balloon would have to be used. This is because the balloon from previous data point will have to be deflated first and plus it would already be accumulated with charge.

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15. ## Power Lab - In the power lab, are group thought that Eric would do the most work because he has the most mass and thought that Ashley would do the least work because she had the lowest mass.

Go to the staircase under Mr. Thorndike's room between the 2nd floor and the 1st floor mezzanine 3. Have Ashley run up the stairs without books from the very bottom to the very top 4. Record the time of Ashley going up the stairs without books with a stopwatch 5. Give Ashley the four books 6. Have Ashley run up the stairs with the four books from the very bottom to the very top 7. Record the time of Ashley going up the stairs with books with a stopwatch 8. Repeat steps 3-7 with Ben 9. Repeat steps 3-7 with Eric 10. Measure the stairs in meters from the 1st step to the top of the last 11.

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16. ## Design Lab, Force of Sponge

This will further give us the instantaneous velocity of the cart. After the cart collides with the sponge, the cart moves a certain distance backwards which can be measured using a meter stick (measured from the end point of the sponge to front most point of the cart). Using a stopwatch the time, that the cart takes to come to rest after collision, can be measured. As we have the distance covered and the time, the average velocity of the car can be determined using the formula [v = d / t]. Momentum plays a key role in this investigation.

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17. ## Analyzing Uniform Circular Motion

Variables Although un-noticeable, there are three different experiments being held in this one lab. Thus in one sub-experiment, there will be an effort to maintain the other independent variables for the other two experiments controlled and constant. The variables for three labs are described below: - The first lab involves the manipulation of radius of the string. This means that the independent variable is the radius of the string, and the dependent variable is the Period (or more precisely, frequency for this experiment). The hanging mass which provides the centripetal force for this motion as well as the mass being swung will be held constant (controlled variables).

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18. ## The Relationship between Acceleration and Rolling Angle

acceleration= The force causing the ball to descend from the top of the slope to the bottom is the gravitational force (g). Therefore, the equation above can be rewritten acceleration= However, from the derivation of the formula of acceleration down the slope of an inclined plane, it can be written that acceleration=g ? The inclined plane was constructed of two meter sticks (joined together at right angles such that the ball could descend the slope), adjustable metal bars (used to set the height of the plane, and the corresponding magnitude of the angle (?)).

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19.  ## Ball Bounce Height Investigation

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20. ## Physics IA 0906 Planning

As a result, it show that the spring system in series will have extend more and have less spring constant. I think the result happens because of Hooke's law. It state that: Which: F is the restoring force exerted by the spring x is the displacement of the end of the spring from its' equilibrium position k is the spring constant. The law state s that the extension of a spring is directly proportional with the load added to it as long as the load does not exceed the elastic limit.

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21. ## Physics IA 0907 Practical

in : m1/kg 0.001m d2/d1 0.001 m2=m1d2/d1 Uncertainty in m2 0.050 1.941 0.0501.941=0.097 8.9110-3 0.060 1.646 0.0601.646=0.099 8.3110-3 0.070 1.415 0.0701.415=0.099 8.2410-3 0.080 1.331 0.0801.331=0.106 8.0910-3 0.090 1.119 0.0901.119=0.101 8.02x10-3 0.100 1.008 0.1001.008=0.101 8.0010-3 Equation for uncertainty in m2: Gradient of the best fit line: mBF = Gradient of the maximum line: Gradient of the minimum line: Average of m2 of the metre rule: Average uncertainty of m2 of the metre rule: Average m2 of the metre rule with uncertainty: 0.101 8.26210-3 (kg)

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22. ## Millikans Oil Drop Lab

of the 40 drops Based on the above results it can be seen that there are many values within two significant figures of each other. Therefore repeating values can be disregarded. Another data table can be created to represent the data from the experiment. Note that the symbol "E -X" represents the value being multiplied by 10 to the power of -X. The differences in data are shown in Table 2. Note that the bottom value has been subtracted by the top value to show the difference in charges, or the step value.

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23. When an atom does decay, the process is random. In reality there is no way of knowing the instantaneous rate of decay at a particular moment of time. On the other hand, an average rate of decay can be found which is known as the half life. The half life of a substance is the average time taken for half the number of nuclei in a sample to decay.

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24. ## Ticker-timer

Conect the ticker timer to the electricity appliance. 4. Insert the carbon/paper tape inside the ticker timer. 5. Paste the carbon/paper tape, which is on the front side of the ticker timer, on the backside of the dynamic trolley with a cello tape. 6. Start the ticker timer and release the trolley. 7. Stop the ticker timer when trolley reaches the other end of the table. But assure that before trolley falls down, it must be stopped.

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25. ## Aim: To investigate the conservation of kinetic energy and the conservation of momentum in an oblique collisions between two objects.

Kinetic energy, on the other hand, is not conserved in collisions if they are inelastic Another important idea to grasp deals with projectile motion and the fact that two spheres dropped from the same height, or even projected horizontally will hit the floor at the exact same time. Moreover, a sphere that is projected horizontally at a bigger speed than another but from the same height will also reach the ground at the exact same time but will go a further horizontal distance.

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