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International Baccalaureate: Psychology
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Compliance Techniques. Aim: To determine which of the four compliance techniques elicits the greatest compliance, measured by the number of yess from people to participate in an experiment for a week.
Door in the face - ask people first if they could participate in an experiment that involves them to attend for a whole term. Then if they reject, ask them if they could at least do 1 week then. d. Low balling - tell people if they participate in the experiment they will receive free goods (chocolate) instantly, but then look into the bag after they say yes and tell them there isn't anymore, and ask them if they're still willing to participate.
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In the terms of whether or not I an independent or interdependent I would say that I am independent. I don't mind being alone or doing things for myself. I personally feel that being self-reliant is a gift and not everyone can be or is that way. I like that fact that I work for my own things and that I don' have to ask anyone for anything most of the time. When it comes to self-serving bias I don't think that I have a defensive attribution. I say this because I don't think that outside sources cause failure.
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A study relevant to these occurrences was done by Ross et al (1977), in which college students were randomly assigned the roles of questioner, observer, or contestant, where the questioner formed a total of ten challenging questions used to test the knowledge of the contestant. Since the contestants rarely got more than four of the ten questions right, the questioner was consistently rated as the more intelligent individual, despite their ability to invent the questions. 5. The social identity theory was created by Henry Tajfel in 1971, and it says that individuals strive to improve their social image by trying to enhance their self esteem based on personal or various social identities.
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The hippocampus plays the single largest role in processing information gathered as memory while the amygdale helps imprint memories that include emotions. Although a memory begins with perception, it is encoded and stored using electricity and chemicals. There are billions of neurons in the brain, each one capable of connecting with over 1000 others. Each time the brain receives new information, the brain creates a new pathway of nerve connections called a memory trace. (See figure 1.2) As the connections break down due to lack of use causing a person to 'forget' certain information.
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Multicultural Competency. Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper based on your assessment, in which you apply these multicultural guidelines and standards to your personal life and workplace. Answer the following questions: o What biases, percepti
51). This is accomplished by a variety of modes. For example, encouraging the psychologist to view every client the same regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, or gender is one way to acquire cultural competency. Another way to acquire cultural competency is through research. A psychologists who researches and educates himself about various cultures, can more effectively communicate with his clients through discussions and questions. To become an effective psychologist, I have realized the necessity to become culturally competent. Through review of the referenced guidelines, I thought of how I interact with people I work with as well as my family and friends, and the bias or judgmental attitude I
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The eldest son is a typical teenage boy whereas the eight-year-old is diagnosed as ADD and slightly autistic. In the fall of 2008, Mason's parents gave birth to a sister, whom unexpectedly because of unforeseen complications of the heart, passed away at only two days old. Currently Mason's mother is pregnant and expected to deliver a boy in February 2010. The father's educational credentials consist of a high school diploma and two years of undergraduate study; the mother has a high school diploma. Economically, the family is middle class with the father working full time and mother working part time.
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For most of us, it's a bit hard to pinpoint what cause a bad sleep. Well, recent research has found that there are at least 5 major cause and they can be either singular or more than two. 1. Anxiety and stress. 2. Working in shifts, life habits - this can be a serious trigger to a lack of sleep. Not everybody is affected by it, but more sensitive people's lives can be impacted in a way that lack of sleep is a sad outcome 3. The usual suspect: tea, coffee, alcohol and cigarettes. 4.
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An experiment to investigate the difference in performance of participants doing a puzzle alone and in the presence of other people.
The aims stated that an improvement in performance could be produced by the mere presence of conspecifics. The results obtained from the experiment show the opposite of what was expected; participants took longer in the together group than they did alone. Introduction There is evidence that individuals do work better and more efficiently in group settings than when they are alone. The mere presence of other people may enhance performance, even when those people are not working together on the task. One of the first experiments on this theory, was conducted by Norman Triplett (1898), when he once discovered that cyclists attain higher speeds when they are being paced or racing in competition with other cyclists than when racing alone.
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They were not de-briefed and did not know the aim of this study, but a week later they were asked to come back and write down what they could remember of that story. With more time interval, the participants had to repeat this a few times and were then debriefed when the 6-7 times where finished. It was found that with more time passed, less the participants could remember about the story, which resulted in their story becoming shorter and shorter as time passed.
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Another factor for a person to replicate the behavior is if they can identify with the model of if they feel like they can relate to them. Rewards and punishments, decides whether an action is favorable or not this will affect the desirability of the observer to replicate that action. Whether the model is liked or disliked can also affect how the observer sees the model as something to imitate or not for example a nice model is more likely to be imitated than a mean one.
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Postive & negative effects of Schema. The Schema theory which was derived by Sir Frederic Bartlet (1886-1969) ascertains that the mind is organised into units called schemata. These units represent single concepts such as dog, they are abstrac
An example of this is the study conducted by Bransford and Johnson in 1972. The gave a group of people a text they should read which was as follow; If the balloons popped, the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems.
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The study of twins in the psychological world today elucidate the best clues into how genetics influence behavior. Researchers enthusiastically seek out twins that have been separated from birth to study their similarities and differences. Thomas Bouchard from the University of Minnesota has conducted studies on over 8000 pairs of twins some identical and some not. According to Thomas Bouchard's twin studies, which tested the twins' Intelligence Quotient (IQ), intelligence is "69-78% heritable", concluding that since IQ is heritable more than 50%; therefore, genetic inheritance influences human intelligence as well as their behavior to large extent.
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These principles must be abided by for the experiment to be considered ethical and for the experiment's findings to be validated. The existence of strict psychological ethical guidelines can be attributed to the outcry after several high-profile psychological experiments of the 20th century. The Nazi Medical Experiments performed upon unwitting Jewish participants during World War Two directly led to the creation of the 1947 Nuremberg Code (the first official set of ethical guidelines in the field of medicine) and the subsequent 1967 Helsinki Declaration, which is considered the cornerstone document in modern medical ethics.
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The first experiment that Loftus and Palmer conducted consisted of forty-five students from the University of Washington. They showed them seven videos of traffic accident, these videos were short and educational for safety driver education. After watching the video they were asked to write their memory of what they have seen. The students were also asked to answer some specific questions but the critical question was about speed. The result as they said that coud be due to a distortion in the memory of the participant, but they also argue that the results could be due to response-bias factors, on this case the participant is not exactly sure of the speed so they just estimate.
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In difference to the other stimuli, this one was the hardest one by the results; this stimulus consisted in the names of colors written in different font color and on a white sheet of paper. The experiment was conducted in the American School of Tegucigalpa and each student was taken out of their class for 5 minutes to perform the experiment. The study was being replicated because that is exactly what J R Stroop did when performing the original "Stroop Effect."
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Loftus and Palmer also wished to discover whether or not a person's memory can be influenced by this information. The aim of the study was to determine how memory is influenced by circumstances and prompting surrounding memory storage and recall. Past studies had concluded that memories were not accurate representations of actual events but were actually formed using past experiences and other influences . The original study consisted of two separate experiments however this replication consisted of only the first of those two. The study was tested on forty-five students split into five categories, each with nine students. In the study forty-five students from the University of Washington were shown seven film clips of car accidents.
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The "Kin Selection Theory" suggested that animals would cooperate, sometimes at a cost to their own survival or reproduction, even to the extent of sacrificing themselves, if this could help their relatives to reproduce, and cause ultimately an increase in the frequency of a gene among organisms of the same species in a certain environment. The "Selfish Gene" theory put forward by Richard Dawkins is a development of the Kin Selection Theory. By referring to genes as "selfish" Dawkins implied that they would attempt to maximise the number of copies of themselves replicated on a global scale, or, as termed by Dawkins, their "inclusive fitness".
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On the other hand, the six characteristics of normality identified by Jahoda (1958) appear at first hand to be entirely based on external judgements of the patient's evaluation of his personal abilities, such as "efficient self-perception", "realistic self esteem" or "self-direction"; or what is exhibited of his abilities, such as "productivity" or "sustaining relationships". Jahoda assumed that there exists an ideal state of mental health, and the more a person lacks in terms of these criteria the more prone he is to developing mental disorder.
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The three types of sampling: Purposive Sampling * Targets a particular group of people * The participants are chosen on the basis of particular characteristics that will help the researcher to explore their chosen topic. (Important to have diversity) * Useful in situations where the researcher needs to obtain a sample quickly to investigate an urgent problem.
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Description includes; the context of the action, the intentions of the actor, and the process in which the action is embedded. A 'thick' description provides rich data. Coding and Connection Themes Coding of the data = organizing into categories. The purpose is to provide tools for analysis Without categorization, it isn't possible to know what is analysed and know possible to compare the data. The Classification Process * Consists of reading, and rereading the field notes in an interactive way.
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Once the message is passed on, the neurotransmitters are either broken down or reabsorbed. This process is called reuptake. 2 There are various different types of neurotransmitters in the bran and each of them have their own effect on the human body. One example of a neurotransmitter is acetylcholine, which has a strong effect on memory and learning processes. Another is serotonin, which has an effect on sensory perception, sleep and arousal. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which has a significant effect on motor activity and co-ordination .3 There is a deficiency of this neurotransmitter in victims of Parkinson's disease. The effect of acetylcholine was investigated in an experiment by Martinez and Kesner4 in 1991.
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Though, it was not until the 1970s that a clear demonstration of this type of experiment was presented. The research psychologist Mark Rosenzweig proposed the idea that the brain continues to develop after infancy through human life experiences and that one's behavior is heavily influenced by one's environment. In the early 1970s, Mark Rosenzweig and his colleagues conducted an experiment in order to find to what extent the environment affects the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Rosenzweig and his colleagues were interested in how high levels of simulation would affect the chemistry of the brain as well as brain growth.
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People need to pay attention to something in order to remember it, and they need to give the material a form which enables them to remember it. Rehearsal means keeping materials active in memory by repeating it until it can be stored. A strength of this model is that it puts the process of memory into simple, specific steps. This model sparked research based on the idea of information processing. The model contains several stores. Information from the world enters sensory memory, which relates to different senses.
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Next, the animal has to run through the maze again. This procedure, which is called lesioning, is a number of times until the animal can no longer perform the task. Evidently, scientists cannot do this to humans so they turn to study people who already have existing brain damage. Several case studies show that long-term memory (LTM)
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IB Psychology HL Take Home Final - The biological level of anaylsis. Most human traits show influence by more than one gene pair. Psychological traits are likely to depend on multiple genes; any single gene would influence many different behaviors.
As genes spontaneously mutate and recombine during the production of sperm and eggs, new genetic variations and new traits arise. In a particular environment, individuals with a genetically influenced trait tend to be more successful than other individuals in finding food, surviving the elements, and fending off enemies and therefore better at staying alive long enough to produce offspring-their genes will become more popular in population. Individuals, whose traits are not so adaptive to the struggle for survival, will not be so "reproductively fit".
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