a. Describe one theory from the Humanistic Perspective One of the founders of the Humanistic Perspective and one whose theories and views are still widely circulated even today is Maslow. Maslow is famous for his theory of hierarchy of needs where he describes the basic needs for human being in order to feel satisfied. Maslow's theory states that in order for human to function fully and develop their character, they need to have various needs fulfilled. However there are needs that are more important, other needs may be essential for a human being to survive; therefore Maslow came up with a pyramid-shaped hierarchy of needs that describes the human needs through various levels and stages of life. The lowest base in the pyramid is occupied by physiological needs such as food, water, and air (Things that Maslow found essential for a human being to survive). The physiological needs were followed by safety needs. Maslow argued that living in a safe environment and having a routine that is followed every day gives a feel of security to people, the effect is that people perform better and feel secure. The next stage in the pyramid is associated with Love, belongingness, and other social matters. Maslow emphasised people's need for belonging to a group that shares their value and experience, this group varies between friends and family to even social and religious groups. Love is
Running head: ATTACHMENT THEORY Sabina Yeasmin Central High School May 19, 2009 Attachment Theory of John Bowlby and Harry Harlow "Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure." There are a few theories out there, dealing with attachment in human beings. But two in particular stand out. One theory is called the theory of attachment as an innate process; a theory made by John Bowlby. Another theory, made by Harry Harlow, is called the theory of attachment as "contact comfort". John Bowlby, considered the father of the attachment theory, did extensive research in this area. He came up with this concept of this attachment after testing the relation between children in hospitals and their mothers. Bowlby explained this attachment of child to caregiver as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings." He also said that early childhood experiences of attachment greatly influence the development and behavior later in life. Bowlby's (1951) main part of the theory was that the mother-child attachment has an evolutionary basis, an innate process that helped the child's survival by increasing mother-child proximity or closeness, especially when the child is fearful, or stressful, such as in the case of child meeting stranger. Bowlby explained the theory of attachment in four characteristics. The first is
A DETAILED STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE BODY IMAGE OBSESSION AND EATING DISORDERS AMONG THE TEENAGERS OF THE 20TH CENTURY Sang Mi Woo 501 154 Psychology Extended Essay World Count: 2183 words Abstract In today's media, messages on the rewards of thinness and the punishments of obesity are everywhere. These unrealistic standards undermine self-image, self-esteem, and teens' physical well-being. And yet, most teenagers are accepting these standards. This paper will examine how psychological and neurological forces aided by media are urging teenagers' bodies toward thinness. The results put teenagers in deadly situations by making them cross the thin line which separates normal dieting from an eating disorder. This study will also take a look at if the media simply reflects the body image of teenagers or if it reinforces and shapes it. Word Count: 102 words Table of Contents Introduction 4 Marketing Thinness to Teenagers 5 Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa 6 Mirror Neurons 6 The Process of Identity Formulation 8 Conclusion 9 Bibliography 11 Introduction People reporting eating problems is not a newly developed trend. Recently, however, the situation has been getting worse, and the number has overwhelmingly increased. This seems inevitable considering how the slim figure has come to represent
Laughter, as it is said, is the best medicine. Comedy is the cure for many ailments. Comedy truly does make the world go around. Who does not enjoy the therapeutic qualities of laughter? There is something to be said for people and things that can make us laugh. Comedy takes situations that we deal with on a daily basis and turns around and makes them funny. What is considered funny does of course vary according to trends, with technology becoming increasingly important. It is little wonder that such developments have become the source of much amusement. Classic comedy, however, such as Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx remain both funny and popular in modern society. Comedy comes in many shapes and sizes from silent to musical and from slapstick to stylish. Although TV is a popular medium for comedy, comedy clubs have also captured the imagination of audiences, worldwide. The career of many a budding comedian has taken off thanks to the opportunity to perform on the comedy club circuit. Big names such as Mike Myers, Jim Carrey and Eddie Murphy of Saturday Night Live fame, all started out in comedy clubs. Stand-up comedians and stars of one person shows like Ellen Degeneres also appeal to contemporary audiences. Human weakness is the basis of most types of humor. A decent comedian will enable us to laugh at ourselves and our common experiences through cracking jokes about
Piaget's interest lay chiefly in the build-up of a basic framework of thought about knowledge. His whole psychological theory of development rested upon the principle of continuous interaction between the child and the world around him. Using the results from his studies of school children and his own children, Piaget proposed that the mind develops as a whole, but that within that whole children develop through a series of four mental stages. Each of the stages are qualitatively different from one another, and progressively more advanced. In addition, each stage produces a distinct way of thinking about oneself and the world, that is different for each stage Piaget observed among his children, that as infants they all manipulated objects as a way in which to gain knowledge about them. By touching, looking, and sucking on objects, they were able to learn about them. He called this the sensorimotor stage of intellectual development, lasting from birth to two years old, because intelligence at that time is measured largely by the infant's deliberate motor actions, and the immediate sensory feedback they receive from those actions. Piaget characterized the years from two to seven, as belonging to the period of preoperational thought. Children can now think about absent objects, and often make up new symbols or objects to represent others, such as a stick of wood being
Introduction L'existentialisme peut être expliqué par la théorie sartrienne: " l'existence précède l'essence ", c'est-à-dire qu'on surgit d'abord dans le monde, puis on existe et finalement on se définit par nos actions dont nous sommes pleinement responsables. Mais ce n'est pas le seul philosophe existentialiste, " l'existentialisme " est une étiquette qu'on avait même attribuée à Albert Camus (voir son roman L'Étranger). En fait, l'origine étymologique du mot existentialisme vient d'existence, en allemand on utilise le mot (Dasein), qui est également le terme désignant la théorie d'Heidegger, qui signifie " être-là ". Jean-Paul Sartre, ayant importé l'existentialisme et la phénoménologie allemande en France, a répandu cette philosophie très à la mode durant les années 1940 qui était devenue non seulement un mode de vie mais qui était aussi définie par un endroit précis : Saint-Germain-des-Prés à Paris. La phénoménologie comme source de l'existentialisme Sartre empruntera beaucoup à la méthode phénoménologique. C'est Raymond Aron qui, de par sa connaissance des philosophes allemands, a suggéré à Sartre de s'intéresser à la phénoménologie. C'est d'abord une méthode qui vient de Husserl. Science des phénomènes, elle décrit la façon dont les choses se donnent à la conscience. La description des choses permet de découvrir
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which cognitive bias is present in individuals when judging strangers solely by the western criteria of beauty, in this case, symmetrical facial features. This experiment was done in a British-based high school in which the participants were international students. The experiment was conducted using twenty four under-class men high school students, aged between 13 and 16. The independent variable was the level of physical attractiveness (symmetry of face), while the dependent variable was the rating that the participant gives the sample. The one-tailed hypothesis stated that subjects would rate highly attractive individuals (or those with highly symmetrical faces) with positive attributes, where as those with less symmetrical faces would be rated with negative attributes. The participants were asked to complete a survey consisting of several questions in the likert scale format that were in response to a selected image of either a symmetrical or unsymmetrical face. The obtained results indicate that there is a high correlation between very symmetrical faces (a western standard of beauty) and positive characteristics. This is in accordance with previous research, such as Thorndike's survey of army officers, and Soloman Asch's research on the primary effect. Introduction: The experiment is framed from the
Caffeine is a crystalline xanthine alkaloid compound, which basically means it is a naturally occurring element.
Caffeine is a crystalline xanthine alkaloid compound, which basically means it is a naturally occurring element. In its pure form, caffeine is a white coloured, bitter tasting substance which acts as a stimulant. It works by speeding up the central nervous system and as a result, leaving the user with and elevated mood, higher levels of concentration, and being less drowsy. It can be found in commercial form in many beverages and foods such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. As well as this it can be bought over the counter in pill form. Due to its abundance it is the worlds most used drug. (2007 centre for addiction and mental health). Caffeine is also often used medically for both drowsiness and in a number of neonatal medicines. Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance, being found in over 60 plants in the world. The most common are cacao pods (most commonly used for chocolate products), kola nuts (used for the preparation of cola drinks), the ilex plant (from whose leaves the popular south American beverage yerba mate is prepared), and in guarana seeds (an ingredient in some soft drinks). Due it being readily available, it is rarely artificially manufactured. However it may be made from a complicated mix of dimethyl urea and malonic acid. The prevalence of caffeine is very different over the spectrum of beverages: * An average cup of coffee (200ml)
A partial replication of Dukes and Bastian study on the recall of Concrete and Abstract Words Psychology Internal Assessment Psychology Standard Level Paul Bao Candidate Number: cxd791 03.04.09 Word Count: Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 1 Method 2 Design 2 Participants 3 Materials/Apparatus 3 Procedure .3 Results 4 Discussion 4 References 5 Appendices 6 Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate dual-coding in the performance of memory (Pavio, 1969). The experiment was a partial replication of Dukes and Bastian (1966), to establish if a list of concrete words would be better recalled than a list of abstract words in immediate free recall. The participants consisted of 17 students from a selective school in Queensland, all 13 to 16 years of age. The experiment was of a single blind, repeated measures design. Participants were required to view and recall four sets of eight abstract words and four sets of eight concrete words. The dependent variable was the number of words recalled in each set, the independent variable was the type (concrete and abstract) of words recalled. The experimental environment was controlled to ensure the accuracy and validity of the results obtained. The mean recall of the concrete words was 21.41 words, and the mean recall of the abstract words was 16.71 words. These results supported and replicated the
Compliance Techniques. Aim: To determine which of the four compliance techniques elicits the greatest compliance, measured by the number of yess from people to participate in an experiment for a week.
Compliance Techniques Experiment Aim: To determine which of the four compliance techniques elicits the greatest compliance, measured by the number of 'yes's from people to participate in an experiment for a week. (Lunchtimes or break times for a whole week) Hypothesis: I predict that low balling would be the best compliance technique as after people say yes they will feel committed. Sampling: Opportunity sampling - though the people we asked are 5 IB students (people we know) and 5 strangers (people in the lower years). Everyone is a non-psych student. (Procedure +Scripts) a. Control - ask people directly if they'd like to participate in a simple psychology experiment. b. Foot in the door - ask people first if they'd like to participate in the experiment just for a day, 1 lunch time or break time. Then ask them if they can participate for 1 week as you've made a mistake and you need people to participate for a longer time. c. Door in the face - ask people first if they could participate in an experiment that involves them to attend for a whole term. Then if they reject, ask them if they could at least do 1 week then. d. Low balling - tell people if they participate in the experiment they will receive free goods (chocolate) instantly, but then look into the bag after they say yes and tell them there isn't anymore, and ask them if they're still willing to