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International Baccalaureate: Psychology
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Conversely, the human mind has difficulty in naming colours when words describe another colour. Stroop (1935) described this interference after studying the effects on attention of conflicting word and colour stimuli.3 Stroop studied naming colours serially, using solid coloured squares; then introduced words, using incongruent word-colour pairs to act as interference, Engel-Andreasen (2008). This resulted in the research subjects taking longer to name the colours in which the words were printed. The experiment was a form of operationalisation, as the interference is physically measurable by recording times, Hill (1998). Jaensch (1929) also studied volunteers' responses to words printed in incongruent colours.3 Cattell (1885)
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The high-cost group was told that Carol would be in their psychology class when she returned to school. The low-cost group believed Carol would finish the class at home. The two emotions previously mentioned were personal distress (like anxiety and fear) and empathetic concern (sympathy, compassion, tenderness). Findings: The result confirmed the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Those in the high-empathy group0 were almost equally likely to help Carol in either set of circumstances, while the low-empathy group helped out of self-interest. Thinking about seeing her in class every day probably made them feel guilty if they did not help. Evaluation: Though Boston's model makes it easier to predict behaviour, it is difficult to measure one's level of empathy.
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The outcome of the study was rather intriguing; Sperry and Gazzaniga concluded that each hemisphere specializes in different areas. Even though the communication between the two hemispheres in a split brain patient is very limited, Sperry and Gazzaniga stated that the hemispheres worked as two separate minds, both having the ability to process information separately as well as specializing in different tasks. Method and design of the study The study involved patients who all had underwent the corpus callosum being severs in order to alleviate their epilepsy.
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He will try to get the soldiers out of Iraq and quickly and safely as possible. As someone once said, "The search for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq has ended. Nothing was found," and another said, "We should begin the discussions now as to how we can bring our troops home." Brutus agrees with both of these statements and he wants to make a decision that will benefit the most people. It was said that the goal from our previous leader, "to disarm Iraq, to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger," which has now
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In a study conducted by John Garcia, cayotes were taught to abstain from eating sheep. This was done by giving the cayotes sheep meat containing lithium chloride, hence making the cayotes feel nausea, vomiting and discomfort. The cayotes were wrapped in sheep skin, whist they were feeling sick, thus they became to dislike the smell of sheep. Consequently, they learnt to develop a phobia of sheep. This study illustrates that phobia can be 'learnt' through the concept of one-trial-learning. Another similar study on the influence of biological preparedness in learning phobias is the study conducted by Minoke.
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Firstly, the central executive plays a role in organising and distributing information gathered from the long-term memory. It has a limited capacity, and it connects the various functions from the other two components of this memory model, hence it controls the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. The phonological loop is another aspect of this model, which consists of two parts. The first is the articulatory control system. It is also commonly known as the "inner voice". The role of the articulatory control system is to repeatedly rehearse information internally, not verbally. Hence materials are sounded mentally, to oneself.
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Furthermore, calculated vale is 4.626 and critical value is 1.729. Therefore, calculated value is higher and we can say that the experimental hypothesis is accepted at a significance level p<0.05. Introduction Information processing is the change in information from which the way the observer takes in. Acquiring, retaining and using the information actively are the process of the information processing. There are 3 stages to it. Firstly, we use our senses to get the information in sensory model and if the attention is given to the information, it goes to the short-term memory. Furthermore, if information in short-term memory (STM)
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This creates a sense of social belonging. This brings a linkage to social categorization (cognitive process), where it's the result of humans stereotyping and favouritism towards in-group group members and group activities. Categorizing an individual from a social perception helps to differentiate between groups easily (rather than thinking of an individual's unique qualities), whether an individual is in their in-group or if others are in out-groups. Being in an in-group gives an individual a sense of social belonging. However this gives them a different perspective of how they belong to society, which is 'outgroup homogeneity effect'.
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Although individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions are not commonly researched, a few studies had been carried out. Such as Markus and Kitayama (1991) research on contrasting two different cultures; the 'westernized' and the 'non-westernized' culture, that is Japan and the United States, to see individuals from two different social groups dimensionsm, Geert Hofstede (1980) study on the IBM organisation's worldwide employees, David Trafimow et al (1991) study on university students from two different cultural backgrounds to fill in sentences, Heine and Darrin Lehman (1995) study, yet again, on university students from different cultural backgrounds of positive and negative events that would happen to them and their views, and lastly Trafimow et al (1997)
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The behavioural approach is the assumption that behaviour is learned. Experience and interactions with the environment make us what we are. This perspective has been called environment determinism because it suggests that we are determined by the environm
This is a mild view of behaviourism- it is the view that the perspectives is not a ''stand alone'' approach but is part of all explanations. * Radical behaviourism; the view that all behaviour is learned. ''The theory of B.F. skinner is based upon the idea that leaning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are a result of an individuals response to events that occur in the environment.'' (tip.psychology.org/skinner.htm.) Neo-behaviourism- this is a newer development and an extension of behaviourism.
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Commentary One technique that Dharkar uses to convey the desperation and the terrible drought of the land is through different sounds, including alliteration, onomatopoeia, and sibilance. Dharkar uses onomatopoeia, which is a word that imitates a sound, throughout the entire poem. At the beginning the word "cracks" (1) represents the dry and withered earth, which is then replaced by the words "drip" and "splash" (3), which are also examples of onomatopoeia, highlighting the need, the desire for water. These words emphasize the desperate need for liquid, that only a tiny amount is cherished and desired.
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To ensure that participants know exactly what will happen to them in such experiments, and what conditions they will be put in they should be briefed and sign a consent form. These are only two of the regulations that experimenters have to follow to ensure that there are no ethical implications. The subject needs to give informed consent before the experiment starts, there should be no harm or long-term damage done to the individual, the participant has the right to withdraw there should be a debriefing at the end where the subject is told what the aim of the experiment was, and the individuals name and details should be kept confidential.
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The Biological Perspective believes that correlates exist between physiological and psychological behavior. Use one psychological study to explain this statement.
Especially threatening or submissive gestures are important because it warns another animal that it will defend itself or flee, which would stop the fight. Both behaviors are there for communication before the actual attack. Aggression within predation is when an animal of one species, acting as predator, hunts and attacks an animal of another, the prey which serves as food. Aggressive behaviors within the same species cause arousal and excitement, because the sympathetic nervous system goes into overdrive. Aggressive behaviors are different and specific for each species and they are organized by neural circuits.
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Examine How Physiological Processes May Influence Psychological Behavior or Vice Versa, Using a Research Study To Illustrate Your Point (8 marks)
Selye also modeled stress as G.A.S or General Adaptation Syndrome and split it into three parts. The initial, acute reaction is called the "flight or fight" impulse, so the heart rate rises, the blood pressure rises, the autonomic nervous system shuts off digestion because of the release of hormones called adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal gland. If the stress continued through this phase, which cannot be maintained long, the body goes into the resistance phase.
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An experiment to investigate if 8th grade band students are able to recall musical theories in order to pass their academic courses.
It provides us with a means of personal expression and acquaints an individual with his environment. My hypothesis is that the more you drill students that take band with rigorous music and having them to find musical theories and apply that to their schoolwork then their academic grades will turn out better. For this experiment, 34 participants were given three different types of music with rigorous musical terms. They had two minutes to study each piece of music, one minute to sit silently to see how to count/ read the music. The first test was a control, and no help from me was offered to help them with any problem that they had.
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and our conscience (superego). It is the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. The ego develops out of growing awareness that one can't always get what he wants and realises the need for compromise. It functions with the rational part of the mind, relates to the real world and operates via the "Reality Principle". The ego's job is to get the id's pleasures but to be reasonable and devise a realistic strategy to make decisions and obtain pleasure. The ego has a conscious and an unconscious part. The id and the ego have no morality.
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Briefly describe and compare each of three Psychological Perspectives covered by the course (Learning, Biological, & Cognitive). What are their basic assumptions about the nature of behavior? How are they similar? How do they differ?
Skinner's assumption was that behavior is determined by the "reward or reinforcement" (Eysenck 23). Watson thought that behavior is determined by the environmental factors rather than the inheritance. The learning perspective differs from the cognitive because it bases its assumptions purely on the observable behavior. However they are similar because both perspectives regard the concept of stimuli and response as part of their assumptions about behavior, even though behaviorist reduce it to just this concept. In contrast to the learning perspective which focused on observable behavior, the cognitive perspective looks into the internal processes, understanding how humans process and treat information.
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They believe that in a certain situation, if you have chosen to act a certain way it have been different from the way you act according to the circumstances. Most people like to believe that there is such a thing because it doesn't make humans seem like puppets held on strings. They believe that we have at least some control over our actions but there is still pressure from the outside that affect our behavior. According to the American Heritage Dictionary determinism is "The philosophical doctrine that every state of affairs, including every human event, act, and decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedent states of affairs".
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affected the dependant variable (the effect). For example in a study where Piliavin et al (1969) investigated how people reacted to a person collapsing on a subway in NY. The IV was the appearance of the victim (a student) who was either carrying a walking stick or acting drunk and the DV which appearance received more help. All victims were males, dressed identically and between 26-35 (Piliavin). The observer recorded the race, s*x, and how many people came to help the victim. The hypothesis was that more people would help the 'cane victim' because, clearly, deservingness played a factor.
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Dora was very intelligent and verbal so she took quickly to free association and seemed to understand Freud's ideas. Dora's conflict arose when her father was often ill and Frau K., who was a family friend, took more care of her father than her mother did and she eventually became her father's lover. Frau K.'s husband, Herr K., didn't seem to mind and kept himself contented with affairs with his servants. As Dora grew older and more attractive Herr K. turned his attention to her. He presented her with an expensive jewel case and tried to kiss her what disgusted Dora due to his strong cigar smell.
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The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was first coined by Walter Cannon in 1929 to literally mean steady state. It describes the dynamic equilibrium by which internal constancy is maintained with
3.1 The audience and its influence on the media The mass media are free of government control, and the audience is in turn free to choose the version of reality that they absorb. Audiences provide feedback (and hence affect media content) by conforming, accommodating or rejecting a particular medium's view of reality. In this way, different parts of the media cater for different parts of society. Because the media is seen as reflecting society, it does not have a significant role in changing it.
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Critically evaluate the Learning Perspective in terms of the following categories: a) Reductionism vs. non-reductionism b) Structuralism vs. functionalism c) Objectivity vs. subjectivity d) Nomothetic vs. ideographic
Reductionism revolves around the idea that behavior can be reduced to minute (tiny) units of analysis such as connections between various stimuli and responses; neuron activity, muscle movements and any larger units of analysis are utterly pointless in this case. Reductionists also state that explanations of complex wholes in terms of the units of which those "wholes" are composed are the only explanations that are worthwhile. This entire idea makes perfect sense considering the fact that the learning perspective focuses on the idea that the environment (stimuli) totally affects someone's behavior (responses) from the moment he is born.
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This experiment investigated the effect of the presence of others on the number of word associations produced by a single individual. It was a replication of an experiment carried out by Allport (1920).
Table of Contents Abstract p.1 Introduction p.3 Method p.4 Design p.4 Participants p.5 Materials p.5 Procedure p.6 Results p.7 Discussion p.8 References p.10 Appendices p.11 Introduction The term 'social facilitation' refers to the tendency for individuals to be aroused into putting on a better performance on less complex tasks when under the eye of other individuals, rather than while they are working on their own, or when competing against somebody. More complex tasks, though, are quite often performed in a rather non-productive manner when it comes to such situations.
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