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Political power was widely spread in disconnected fazendas, which were weak and dispersed. Most of the country stayed unexplored and in terms of population distribution and orientation, the Brazil of the 1930s had altered very little from that of the sixteenth-century. The first historian of Brazil, Frei Vicente do Salvador states that it was post-colonial in name only, in fact, remaining a colonial society in function and structure (Williams 2009: 99-100). Moreover, Brazilian cities suffered from problems of transportation, housing, public utilities, and distribution and therefore Bras�lia, a new, planned capital seemed to offer hope of relieving the population problems of Brazilian urban life (Epstein 1973: 9).
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or gas (combustion gases of fossil fuels). This last aspect, the gaseous pollution, leads to a kind of design therefore seeks to reduce or eliminate energy dependence. These constructions exploit the full potential energy that gives the atmosphere of their surroundings, a fact which gives rise to the name of bio-climatic. It is therefore evident that one of the previous aspects to consider in any architectural design should be the climate of where you are placing the building. The climatic characteristics have always influenced both the choice of settlement in the shelter of man, as the arrangement, orientation and shape of buildings.
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the passage of heat * Resistance to the passage of sound' [Barry 4, The Construction of Buildings, Fifth edition, Oxford 2001] 3.0 HEAT TRANSFER The transmission of heat design needs to adhere to Building Regulation Approved Document Part L - Conservation of fuel and power. This regulation is applied to decrease and limit the loss of heat through the external envelope of a building other than dwellings by establishing maximum U Value's for the overall transmission of heat. [www.planningportal.gov.uk] The interior of the building needs to be kept at a comfortable temperature which, needs to be above that of the outside air.
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Fire - stages of a fire, fire resistance of different building materials, construction to resist fire.
Oxygen CO2 type portable fire extinguisher to dilute the oxygen content of the air around the fire Heat Wet type fire fighting equipment to lower the temperature However, victims of a fire disaster are usually died of smoke inhalation. Hence, Beside putting out the fire, it is crucial for us to evacuate people out of the premises asap at time of fire and implement some measures to control the spread of smoke, esp. for those premises with high nos of people, e.g.
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Etruscan Temple Because of the materials the Etruscans used to build their temples we only have the foundations, and Vitruvius' (a Roman architect) account of the temples designs.
The Etruscan temple was mainly used to house statues of Etruscan God's. Statues made of terracotta were also placed on the peak of the Etruscan temple roof. Although the Etruscan temples were simple in form, they were ornamented with paintings and terra- cotta sculpture Plan of a Typical Etruscan Temple 1. Podium (or base). 2. Entrance steps. 3. Columns/colonnade. 4. Porch. 5. Cella (three part). Tuscan order Vitruvius, Book IV, Chapter 7 Let the site on which the temple is to be built be six parts in length; five parts are to be assigned to the breadth.
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He renamed the Doornkloof farm after his daughter, Irene and so it exists today as the Irene Estate. (Irene, Gauteng: 2008) De Beer (2008) states that in 1902 Irene was established and claimed as a township by the new owner Johannes van der Byl who represented his family name which exists today in its fifth generation. The Van der Byl's are responsible for building up the large herds of dairy cows around Irene as well as developing the forestation within this area.
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Because of this they are known for their water draining properties. When dry granular soils have little strength; when wet they are only slightly, if at all plastic. Sand * Granular soil type, * Has the biggest particles so allows good water drainage, * It allows good drainage, * Consists of rock / mineral particles; hence the gritty texture, Clay * Cohesive soil type, * Very fine particles; does not drain water well, * When dry is very hard but when soft is plastic, * Formed from sedimentary deposits after rock is weathered or eroded, Chalk * Cohesive soil type, * Contains large quantities of stones of varying sizes, * When dry crumbles easily.
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* Digital Camera: - To record appearance at time of the survey. * Steel Tape (5m & 30m) - These are used to carry out a measured survey of the building or to record measured details of various elements within the building. * Torch: - A robust torch allows the surveyor to see into dark confined areas such as roofspaces or underfloor areas. * Hammer and Bolster: - To lift floorboards to inspect the underfloor areas etc. * Extending Ladder - A folding ladder that extends to a minimum length of 3m * A Penknife - Is used when inspecting wooden surfaces or to scrape at loose materials.
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However, the choices for superstructure are wide and selections will be made against a range of criteria. According to the theory of classification on Badir-Razali building system classification (Badir et al., 1998) following three building systems are termed as Industrialised Building system (IBS): (1) Cast in-situ formwork system - table or tunnel formwork system (2) Prefabricated system - panel, block or frame system (3) Composite system The benefits of IBS are numerous: * Less on-site workers and trades. * Faster construction time.
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A study to identify how cob buildings in Devon and flint buildings in Norfolk are good examples of how 'the available materials are the principal dictators of style' in vernacular architecture.
Different methods of construction were used across Britain including clay bat5 and pise.6 Another method, particularly used in the West Country, was cob. Cob was essentially made up of earth which included clay, chalk, grit, silt and sand. This mixture was built up layer by layer, with each layer being left to dry before adding the next. To give the walling extra strength 'large quantities of straw [...] were mixed in to provide fibrous reinforcement and to minimise shrinkage cracks.'7 Cob walls varied in colour depending on where the material was extracted.
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Brighton then, like today, offered a relatively quick escape from the hustle and bustle of London into a more relaxing place. In an era before aeroplanes it was not possible to take a short break in the Mediterranean sun and this was the equivalent of the era for those with wealth ( or at least initially in the Prince's case for those with ability to borrow money). Just how fashionable Brighton was is also evidenced from Jane Austin's novel Pride and Prejudice written in 1796 which features the town and its military camp.
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In ch.2 of Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern (U of California P, 1993), Anne Friedberg discusses the relationship between the city, modernism, film and architecture.
The contrasting dissonance between the two areas of the frame is symbolic of the differences between modernity and traditionality, and maintains a fascinated gaze from the viewer. As Friedberg discussed, "the tourist simultaneously embodies both a position of presence and absence, or here and elsewhere, of avowing one's curiosity and disavowing one's daily life", and "tourism provides an escape from boundaries... it legitimates the transgression of one's static, stable or fixed location", and although the greengrocer is only performing the obligatory daily functions of his profession, he is emphasized as a tourist in the Arpel residence, strangely curious to discover what lies behind the gates.
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They show the elevations, sections and plans and are true to scale 1:200 reductions (1/8 inch to 1foot/ 1:100). The drawings are over 70 years old and not very clear to read. 2.4 The building is currently disused and empty 2.5 It is of steel-framed construction with beams and columns encased in concrete with reinforced floors and roof decks. The framing is encased in 300mm external brick cavity walls with 100mm stone facing to the principal elevation. 2.6 Interior original features of the entrance lobby, hall and stair well are to be retained. 2.7 Proposed internal layout is to be flexible on all floors to allow occupation by a number of small businesses.
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Even though, a historian studying castle building can learn a great deal from this source, how they placed the windows, the style of architecture used and also what they thought was priority to have in a castle at this time. Question 2a Why was the picture in source B published? The picture in source B (Ivan Lappers imaginary reconstruction of the great hall) was published in 1993. The reason why it was published I think was to give modern day historians studying Raglan Castle an image in their mind of how the great hall may have been in that day and age.
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So it is difficult to decipher the original from the not so original. Chester's Cathedral is an obvious case as it has gone through an extensive transformation in the Victorian days. There are many other buildings, particularly along the Rows which have parts dating back to the 13th and 14th century but which have been substantially modified by the Georgians and the Victorians. During this essay, I will need to look into the following statement The townscape of many towns and cities was irreversibly altered by redevelopment n the 19th century, precipitated by the industrial revolution.
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Barnum was one of the most recognizable hoaxers. He is considered a master in the art of "Humbuggery." His exploits took him around the country displaying his "discoveries." In one of Barnum's sideshows he produced an elderly black women (Joice Heth) who claimed to have been George Washington's nurse. This purported her to be over one hundred-sixty years old. Later it was discovered that she was no older than seventy years old. Although it was commonly know that Barnum was defrauding the public he still meet with success. Barnum later (1865) wrote a revealing book into the ways of his deception.
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Coordination occurs through rules and procedures, detailed specifications, and shared traditions between the president and the board of directors. Products that need a high level of specialized knowledge require a functionally organized structure. Organizational Chart There are four levels of management within our "Doggy World Supermarket" organizational structure, and each level of management cannot function effectively without the joint efforts of the other levels. This type of management structure support a functional organizational structure, and each pinnacle is designed to support and accomplish specific tasks and perform operational duties within the organization to guarantee the success of the company.
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Two amino acids join together to form a dipeptide. A chain of amino acids is known as a polypeptide. A protein consists of one or more polypeptides. The bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond. This is formed between the carboxyl part of one amino acid to the amine group of another. They join together in a condensation reaction. The diagram to the right is an example of such a reaction: The structure of proteins can be studied on four levels. These are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
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This system of connections is applicable to square panels as well as to the trapezoidal and triangular panels of framed domes. 1.1 What is cladding Cladding is a long lasting and durable material that is used throughout the country for many reasons. Cladding is a collective term for any sheeting that covers a building, whether it be on the roof of the building, or on the walls. Roof cladding is made from thicker steel and is rolled to a profile capable of supporting roof traffic.
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The growth, could be said, started around 1702, when Princess Anne returned to Bath for the 3rd time from suffering from Gout (a painful and potentially disabling form of arthritis) to take to the Spa waters to relieve her of her pains. This patronage sealed the royal favour of Bath, thus drawing in the sick in need of salvage. Illness was also a part of life then. With lack of medical knowledge at the beginning of the century, the Georgians were oblivious to basic hygiene; illnesses such as gout and smallpox were common and hard to be dealt with, and, of course, easy to be caught.
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Baudrillard also believes that the consumer is nothing more than a passive entity that derives all knowledge, thought and action from these 'models' or 'codes', 'The real is produced from miniaturized cells, matrices, and memory banks, models of control-and it can be reproduced and indefinite number of times from these.'(Baudrillard, 1994:2) Hyperreality is a comparatively new word that can be broken down to its components: hyper, and reality, which comes out with 'over and above, beyond that which exists objectively'. Albert Borgman explains that hyperreality is possible when processing information 'to the extent that it overcomes and displaces tangible reality.'
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Brunelleschi is said to have created the 'Renaissance style' in architecture. It is certain that he was the first man to begin to understand the structural system of classical architecture and to transform its principles to suit modern needs. Perhaps the most important thing about his dome is that it was an architectural feat which could not have been carried out by anyone else during the fifteenth century. Brunelleschi was first on the premises of the cathedral of Florence as early as 1404, and was also consulted upon but only as a result of routine matters.
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The purpose for the building was to honour the gods, it is said to humble the most brilliant of Engineers due to the fact it has no steel rods to counter the high tensile forces such as we need to hold modern concrete together. The building is circular in form it was designed to hold a fictional ball, and is 143 feet in diameter with a wall in the form of skirts dropping from its circumference. In the centre of the dome is a 19-foot opening held in place by a bronze backed by a brick ring integrated into concrete dome.
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Of course, Arkwright may simply have chosen the area because he knew it, or had friends there. Part 1 - How far did Cromford Village Change as a Result of Arkwright choosing it as the site for his Mill? As can be seen from Source 1, Cromford was small just a small rural hamlet before Arkwright came. This source is reliable as there is no reason for the artist to lie and there is no evidence in Cromford today that there was anything other than the mill to attract a larger population in the mid eighteenth century.
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How useful are the secondary sources provided in understanding Medieval Monasticism compared with the site of Fountains Abbey?
Source B - Architecturally this informs us very little at all in terms of Medieval Monasticism. Pages 85 to 87 provide us with somewhat generic medieval building information of no particular use. However, page 83 is another matter. Although highly simplistic, it does provide us with a large list of tasks that monks would have taken part in, which tells us more than some of the architecture can. Having said this, there are ways the site can tell us some of the points illustrated on page 83. The site can show us how the monks gave shelter to travellers, being on a natural pass used by many, obviously worshipping god, and also farming, made obvious by the large tracts of arable land surrounding the Abbey and the granary.
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