What does the 'Gentrification' of the inner city explain?
. What does the 'Gentrification' of the inner city explain? (Essay 1) Gentrification comes from the word Gentry (i.e. upper middle class) and the second part of the word links to a process of change - in this case higher income groups moving into a formally low income rented area. The higher income households then displace lower income residents of a neighbourhood because they bid up rents and change the essential character and flavour of that neighbourhood by attracting new types of shops and restaurants into the area. Displacement of current residents, physical upgrading of the neighbourhood by individuals and developers of the housing stock change in neighbourhood character reflected in income levels, local services, and possible conflict between new and old residents. It is know as a form of private urban regeneration of the inner city area. Gentrification can also be the migration of middle and upper-class residents into a deteriorating area which may help to revitalise the area, hence regeneration. However gentrification impacts on property values and reduces the supply of cheaper or affordable housing, hence social exclusion. Gentrification examples in London are Islington, Finsbury Park, Brixton and Hackney. Inner Cities Term used to describe areas in decline around the old urban core of the city. These areas have lost there old jobs i.e. manufacturing, road
Source H suggests that poor planning and Winston Churchill were responsible for what went wrong at Gallipoli. Is there enough evidence in Sources D to I to support this interpretation? Use the sources and your knowledge to explain your answer.
Sam Arnold Source H suggests that poor planning and Winston Churchill were responsible for what went wrong at Gallipoli. Is there enough evidence in Sources D to I to support this interpretation? Use the sources and your knowledge to explain your answer. To investigate the statement above I will have to test it against my own knowledge and against the other sources. I will test all the sources for their reliability and also see whether they agree with and/or contradict source H. Their validity will also have to be evaluated. I will also have to consider my own background knowledge and make a decision as to whether the source is supported by what I already know. There are also the factors of the Turkish defence, the difficult terrain and the tactics employed by the officers in the offensive. Source H was written recently by an historian and states that the campaign at Gallipoli has become well remembered, partly "due to the involvement of Winston Churchill". It also states that "Gallipoli was a vain hope" and that it "stands out as an example of how not to conduct war". Source D supports the view that the planning was one reason, but puts more blame on the role of the officers. A captain who fought at Gallipoli wrote it and he points out that "attacks were ordered rather lightheartedly". He also comments that the whole thing "seemed very amateur". This is a
Outline what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the English planning system are.
Nicola Duncan-Anderson Outline what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the English planning system are. Societies have always planned, however, it was not until the Town and Country Planning Act (1947), that the planning system in England, really came in to being. This Act was the first major piece of legislation that gave the system a framework, making all development subject to planning permission (Nix et al, 1999). The system aimed to reconstruct Britain from its postwar state to become a strong, independent and self-sufficient nation. Two factors were of particular importance. Containing urban spread and protecting the countryside. There was focus given to agriculture, which was looked upon most favorably. Recently however, this has been replaced with an environmental direction. The system has had to cope with major changes within society, the economy, and the political scene (Cullingworth and Nadin, 2001). These changes have made planning issues more diverse, which has seen the system become complex and submerged in policy (Cullingworth and Nadin, 2001). The role the planning system plays inevitably invites opinion, both positive and negative. It is these strengths and weaknesses that shall be outlined below. Strengths The British Planning System 'has remained resilient' (Rydin, 2003), 'remarkably defending dominant values for over 60 years' (Bartlett, 2001).
Geography - Cheadle is situated south of the Staffordshire Moor lands.
Geography coursework Emma Walford Cheadle is situated south of the Staffordshire Moor lands, 8 miles east of the potteries conurbation. Leek, the administrative centre of the district lies 12 miles North of Cheadle. The general are comprises a broad valley, running from North to South between sandstone ridges. The valley contains a number of watercourses running form North to South, particularly Cecilly Brook which joins the river Tean to the south of the town in the Mobberley area. Part of this area is underlain by coal measures. East of the area is the attractive valley of the River Churnet, further east is the southern most extremes of the Pennines. Cheadle developed on the lower slope of what is known as monk house hill, it seems likely Cheadle was established in Saxon times. The first record of the town is in the Doomsday book under the name "celle" which is derived from Creoles meaning merchant or trader. Cheadle has a long history of trading since the time of Henry III. Location factors include Flat land; Valley for shelter, clay, sandstone and coal measures for industry, good communicational prospects and the River Tean was good for domestic water. Cheadle developed as a trading centre for its surrounding rural area and still is a primary function. In late 17th century Cheadle developed as a significant centre for a large farming area and coal
London 2012 Olympic Transport Strategy
Assignment 1 - Advanced study Skills - Research, referencing and citation London 2012's Olympic Transport Strategy Introduction This report relates to the work performed by the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) who is responsible for developing and building the new venues and infrastructure for the Games and their use post 2012. The ODA were set up by the London Olympic Games and Paralympics Games Act in 2006 to ensure the necessary planning and preparation for the Games takes place. The Act grants the ODA a great deal of power in regards to the Olympic Games. It allows them to buy, sell and hold land; be the local be the local planning authority; develop infrastructure; develop a Transport Plan for the Games, with which other agencies must cooperate, and regulate traffic on the Olympic Road Network (ORN). This report will be centered around a briefing paper written by Allan Gooch which primarily looks at the ODA's transport strategy for the 2012 games. We will be looking at this proposed strategy and establishing where they are today in terms of the transport infrastructure. As this report is restricted to a maximum of 1000 words I will be limited in my expansion of some topics, however I will aim to discuss all the issues relevant to this topic. The Olympic Games is the largest sporting event to date and has provided a global platform for its hosts since the first modern
Travelling Salesman Maths Investigation
Travelling Salesman Maths Investigation During the summer holidays last year, I went on a cycling holiday. I arrived in Roscoff, by ferry from Plymouth, and stayed at a friend's house for a few days and then set off around Brittany on my bicycle. I found the cycling hard work at the beginning, but after a few days, my legs were no longer sore, even after five hours of continuous cycling. At the end of three weeks, I had visited many of the towns and villages in Brittany and had nicely tanned legs. This year I am planning to go cycling with a friend. To avoid cycling along a route which is repetitive and contains long stretches of road to cycle in a day? I will draw a network to plan my route. I have linked up the main towns in west Brittany and distances between them along roads shown in the Michelin road map. I intend to cycle from one town to another during the day, and then stay the night in the destination town. I will start and finish the trip in the small town of Roscoff, where my friend and I will stay at my French friend's house in the town centre. I will try to cycle along the shortest possible route between towns. I can only look at a few of the routes between the 10 nodes out a possible (10-1)! /2 = 181440. This would be far too many to individually analyse. Some of the possible arcs will be left as either the routes between the towns do not exist or the route
bradford council palanning and urban regeneration work placement report
Gavin Fowler Student Planning Officer Bradford Metropolitan Borough Council Regeneration Dept. June 2007 - June 2008 Table of contents (p) * acknowledgments .3 * Introduction to Bradford Council .4 * My role as a planning officer .5 - Day to day tasks - FUL applications - The Pre-app Service * The Area planning panel .9 * Listed buildings and conservation areas .10 * Greenbelts and the countryside policy .12 * Site visits and Health and safety. .13 * What has the placement done for me .13 -Personal statement -future prospects Acknowledgments I would like to thank Bradford Metropolitan Borough council for giving me the opportunity to learn and gain a positive experience from my time at the planning office. The experience I have gained has been invaluable and has definitely helped me to decide along a future career path. My time there has given me the confidence and ability to address situations that I would not have necessary felt comfortable addressing before. Special thanks - A special thanks to Amin Ibrar, who has been a good friend and colleague at the planning office. Amin shows great care and dedication in his work and has helped me out numerous problems during the year as well as introducing me to various computer systems, polices and taking me out for site visits. A special thanks to the administration
Major Chemical Pollutants in Photochemical Smog.
Major Chemical Pollutants in Photochemical Smog: Sources and Environmental Effects Toxic Chemical Sources Environmental Effects Additional Notes Nitrogen Oxides (NO and NO2) - combustion of oil, coal, gas in both automobiles and industry - bacterial action in soil - forest fires - volcanic action - lightning - decreased visibility due to yellowish color of NO2 - NO2 contributes to heart and lung problems - NO2 can suppress plantgrowth - decreased resistance to infection - may encourage the spread of cancer - all combustion processes account for only 5 % of NO2 in the atmosphere, most is formed from reactions involving NO -concentrations likely to rise in the future Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) - evaporation of solvents - evaporation of fuels - incomplete combustion of fossil fuels - naturally occurring compounds like terpenes from trees - eye irritation - respiratory irritation - some are carcinogenic - decreased visibility due to blue-brown haze - the effects of VOCs are dependent on the type of chemical - samples show over 600 different VOCs in atmosphere - concentrations likely to continue to rise in future Ozone (O3) - formed from photolysis of NO2 - sometimes results from stratospheric ozone intrusions - bronchial constriction - coughing, wheezing - respiratory irritation - eye irritation -
Kyoto and Fuel Poverty
3a) Discuss and critically evaluate the development of sustainable construction since the Rio conference and Kyoto agreements and include and compare agenda 21, HECA, affordable warmth, fuel poverty policies and guidelines and their apparent effectiveness in terms of the spirit of the Rio agreements. The construction industry is one of the most intensive in terms of its consumption of natural resources and energy and in its production of waste materials. In order to meet the goals of sustainable development, the construction industry must embrace more sustainable forms of building and make better use of the resources available. It is not just an issue of matching consumption patterns to the earth's available natural wealth. The extraction, processing and transportation of these materials have a huge environmental impact - the more consumed, the more damage there is. Sustainable construction therefore, requires not only reducing consumption, but also re-using and recycling the materials already available. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. It was attended by political leaders from 178 countries together with representatives from all the major environmental organisations. The objectives of the conference were to respond to pressing global environmental problems and five separate agreements were made,
Participative Models of Planning Vs Post-Modern Views of Planning.
Local and Strategic Planning Participative Models of Planning Vs Post-Modern Views of Planning By Harpreet Chadha W01104706 Module tutor : Robin Crompton It is my intention to explain as best I can within the parameters of this paper, various 'participative' models that have played a part in town planning, relying heavily on Sherry Arnstein's "A Ladder of Citizen Participation" as it is in my opinion the most influential article that deals specifically with the topic of participation in respect to town planning. Other theorists, philosophers and political thinkers such as Hillier, Routledge, Melucci, Albrechts, Cohen and Arato have all provided their views and proposed solutions, and indeed have asked many interesting questions, mainly dealing with issues of power, that cannot be ignored. It is also my intention to discuss the 'post-modern' views of planning which can only happen with an understanding of the 'modern' views of planning, as it was only with the social failure of the modern that the post-modern as an ideology could be borne in the minds of those that matter (those that occupy positions of power and influence.) A major problem with explaining the post-modern is that all those thinkers involved in the debate stand at differing degrees to the left, to the right and so finding a central argument is impossible thanks to the likes of, Harvey, Lyotard,