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University Degree: Planning

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  1. Electrical engineering - Mesfet stands for metal semi-conductor field effect transistor. Mesfets are constructed in compound semiconductor technologies lacking high quality surface passivation.

    The high mobility leads to a high current, transconductance and transit frequency of the device. The main disadvantage of Mesfet structure is the presence of a Schottky metal gate. The Schottky metal gate limits the voltage on the gate to turn on the voltage of the Schottky diode. The turn on voltage is usually 0.7V for Schottky diodes. Therefore the threshold voltage must be lower than the turn on voltage (0.7V) There are two main structures that are used for Mesfets; There are two main structures, Non-Self aligned source and drain and Self aligned source and drain.

    • Word count: 849
  2. Free essay

    urban regeneration of bradfords city centre ,a case of little germany, dissertation outline.

    An interview will be conducted in order to find out what progression has been made. 4. To analyse and interpret the key driving force issues that face policy makers. I intend to analyse and investigate: * What are the existing problems with Bradford City Centre? * What is the current situation in regards to urban regeneration within documentation and guidance set by the LPA and private investors? * What planning policies have been cemented to achieve this ambitious aim?

    • Word count: 804
  3. plastic limit tests

    The essential requirement is to reach the crumbling condition as a result of decreasing content. * Find the moisture content of each set of broken threads. The average moisture content is expressed as a whole number and is reported a plastic limit (WP) The plasticity index (IP) * The plasticity index (IP) of a soil is the difference between the liquid and plastic limits * IP = Wl - Wp Liquid limit test Test procedure * Select, prepare a mature specimen (over 24 hours) * Check apparatus * Mix and place sample into cup * Measure cone penetration * Measure moisture content * Repeat twice adding more water * Each time calculate a plot graph The cone penetration is the difference between R1 & R2 * Check the apparatus.

    • Word count: 946
  4. communication and leadership

    What is leadership? Leadership is process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals, it is a balancing act, It requires communicating a compelling vision, convincing others to buy into that vision, and marshaling resources and talent to make it happen. Communication is essential to leadership Effective groups and teams are pertinent to organizational successes as much organizational work is completed by groups and teams rather than individuals. In any work environment, the ability to express one's opinion and feelings without disrupting harmony is fundamental to the long-term progress of the organization.

    • Word count: 860
  5. creative writing

    The only problem we had was accommodation; the people never had a big apartment to accommodate us. You can pass the night in my Attic...Said the Old Lady AN ATTIC... exclaimed Sandra Hell no, How can I live my big bedroom all just to come and sleep in an attic, there is absolutely no way that is going to happen (she whispered). We were not thrilled by the old woman's offer so we refuse it. Having being attracted by the golden bright writing 'A HOME FOR PLEASURE' on the front of the big bright mansion that was up the road

    • Word count: 977
  6. good, bad and ugly-original writing peice

    He could remember having travelled for a good few days in the blistering heat of the west's deserts and the sticky sensation of the leather as it rubbed and clung to his sweaty back as he leaned ever so casually against the rickety fence of the old stables, waiting for the duo of sheriffs that had been following his path for the past days. He remembered glancing over the town as he waited, listening to the wind whistling through the streets and blowing sand around, as he looked over everything from the buildings with their faded paint, to the silent grey gelding that had been tied to the front of the town's bar.

    • Word count: 653
  7. This study seeks to examine the effects of restoration on the characteristics of an urban river, the River Crane. River restoration tries to re-establish the natural flow of a river by removing hard-engineering structures

    Figure 1: Map showing fieldwork sites (Scale = 1:10,000) www.multimap.com) Method At each of the sites shown above the following measurements were taken: * Width (from wetted perimeter and bank-full) * Depth (at meter intervals across the channel) * Velocity (at meter intervals across the channel) * Clast volume (15 stones sampled at random from either side of the river channel) The data gathered at the restored site was compared with the data gathered at the un-restored section. Statistical tests (t-tests)

    • Word count: 929
  8. The decline of inner cities is irreversible - How far do you agree with this statement? What are the implications of this for urban planning policies?

    These extra occupants base themselves in largely residential areas around the out-side of the cities in the suburbs. These areas tend not to be as well sustained as the original residential areas near to the CBD. However, these original central occupants who live to a reasonable standard near to the CBD no longer need to live in the thick of the urban area due to transport improvement and tele-communication technology. The wealthier communities move out of the CBD and settle outside of the migrants zone in new housing. This leaves the working class occupying the majority of the inner-city residential estates.

    • Word count: 842
  9. Multiple Nuclei Theory

    They assumed more than one desired location for access. This is based on the fact that many towns and nearly all large cities grow about many nuclei rather than around a simple CBD. Some of these nuclei are pre-existing settlements; others arise from urbanization and external economies. The number and functions of the nuclei differ from city to city.

    • Word count: 382
  10. Examine, explain and comment upon all resources of thought, idea, image, choice of words, sounds rhythms and figures such as assonance, consonance, metaphors and similes etc....

    There seems to have been many religious representatives throughout the ages by the writer's inclusion of the cathedral crypt with its immense capacity of monastic graves. In the second paragraph the author explains that Cloisterham, because of its religious status it was unwilling to show any hospitality to anyone with unworthy desires and not of the same religious statute as their inhabitants. Also in the same paragraph he introduces social classes and social divides, were he tells of how the decomposed bodies of the Bishops and Archbishops were fertilising the fields of the farmers, indicating that the less fortunate have inherited the richness and wealth of the hierarchy.

    • Word count: 838
  11. Traffic and transport

    If a person wants a private conversation they can do so in privacy. People driving alone can choice whether to listen to music or not. Some people like to feel safe in the hands of there own driving or some one they can rely on without anxiety. Public transport can have the total opposite of everything above. The majority of people would rather be in private transport than take public transport. Public transport does not cater for the taller people or the wider people in the community, meaning that their travel could be uncomfortable.

    • Word count: 868
  12. What is the value of studying the history of urban development and planning?

    The emergence of urban civilisation saw an advance in technology. Uruk 3400 - 3100bc, one of the major cities of Mesopotamia, with a population of 10 000 saw the evolution of the wheel, for transport and pottery production; bronze smelting; writing to record transactions and the production of sun dried and baked bricks. Uruk, when excavated in the 1930s was found to have been enclosed by a wall, had a religious precinct and a port. Rectilinear forms could be found within Uruk and a series of courtyard homes made up the residential areas.

    • Word count: 784
  13. The House on Bear Flag Drive.

    I was relieved to know that the new owners of the house are taking care of my childhood home. 1440 Bear Flag Drive, which is located in the suburban town of Hanover Park, Illinois, is a very significant address to me since I lived in there until I was eleven years old. It was an old town home that housed four different families. It was painted a lime green color, and the weather was taking its toll and making the paint chip off slightly. There were about eight steps leading up to the entrance. The lawn looked awful because there was barely any grass and where there was it was crab grass.

    • Word count: 634
  14. Billy Elliot - a discussion of the film.

    , Billy and his friend walk along having a conversation as she casually taps each one of the policeman's riot shields. To add to Billy's problems, his mother is dead, and his grandmother is going senile and is prone to wandering off.

    • Word count: 330
  15. Elstow Garden Villages - Answer to Population Crisis or Disaster to Local Wildlife?

    Many towns and villages are expanding but will struggle to cope because of a lack in facilities. One area struggling the most is Bedfordshire. For Bedfordshire to keep to John Prescott's plans a total of 2430 new homes are needed a year in the county. Not only this but in order to keep to agenda 21, a variety of sustainable housing needs to be developed. This also requires houses to be energy efficient and at least 25% 'affordable housing'. To cope with all this it was decided that whereas all other towns and villages in Bedfordshire will still need development, the only way to cope with the housing development was to build a completely new town or area.

    • Word count: 963
  16. Dual Narrative Story.

    Just the other week he was killed in an attack - a terrorist attack. 12:00 precisely. Jenny left the doctors surgery where she worked, and made her way to the town. Here she met her husband waiting outside the caf´┐Ż. It was their anniversary - a special day. Jenny pushed the thoughts of the terrorist attack out of her mind and looked forward to a good meal, shopping and a day out with her beloved husband. Rhian stopped abruptly from her studying. She was meant to meet her friend, in town, five minutes ago. She locked the door and ran to the bus stop - just in time.

    • Word count: 578
  17. Housing & Quality of Life in Glasgow.

    All of these 'heavy industries' created thousands of jobs. This is due to the Geographical location and luck. Due to the coal mines and the steel factories being in reach of the River Clyde it provided the perfect place to export these products to the rest of the world. The effect of the creation of new jobs on the total population of Glasgow was enormous. The population grew as people came in for more jobs. Due to the jobs many people came in this is called a push or pull factor in this case it is a pull factor.

    • Word count: 783
  18. Comparison: Belfast Confetti and Slough.

    His poems on this topic often have a tone of strong disbelieve, anger and regret. The reader knows that Betjemen hates Slough because he is talking about destroying the town with bombs-all the people wants to change it. We know that the poet hasn't change his mind about bombing Slough because he says; "...get ready for the plough..." and "...Come friendly bomb and fall on Slough." The way the poet uses bombs to destroy the town is a good thing for him because he wants all the people out of the town because the people is already destroying the town with their architecture and so on.

    • Word count: 699
  19. In what ways were the public health problems in Wigan similar to or different from, the public health problems of other towns during the early years of the century?

    The housing at this time was very cheaply built, and usually in terraces. Many houses were built without a drinking water supply, or drainage. This had come about because of the random way in which land was developed, and because there was no central authority to ensure that drains were installed. In the 19th century, local authorities were not responsible for building houses. They were usually built by mill or factory owners who had no incentive to provide decent housing. As a result, the problems just got worse. Many other towns had poorly built houses as well.

    • Word count: 931
  20. Describe and explain the changes which have been made to improve the health of people in Wigan during this century.

    Water supplies and drainage were extended to the slum clearance areas as new houses were built. Before the 1920's there was a lack of finance and interest in improving people's living conditions. It was the end of the First World War that started the changes. In the King's Speech to Local Government representatives in 1919, the King stressed the need to improve "the unhealthy, ugly, overcrowded house ... if drink and crime are to be successfully combated". Extract from King's Speech, April 1919 The first areas that were cleared for new housing were Beech Hill and Ridyard Street, which were redeveloped in the 1920's with semi-detached houses with gardens.

    • Word count: 968
  21. The fieldwork in the town of Samut Prakan.

    This makes the original settlements of Bangkok grow in to Samut Prakan. Hypothesis 2: " Comparison types of shops and serviced cluster near to each other in Samut Prakan town center, but convenience types do not" Most of the comparison goods and services like to cluster near each other in the city center. Because they are selling the types of goods and services that customers like to compare types, styles and prices before they buy. The convenience goods shops like to keep away from each other and more evenly spread out because they are selling the types of goods and serviced that they buy more frequently and are less interested in comparing types before they buy.

    • Word count: 850
  22. Outline the characteristics that make Saltaire a typical model village.

    Saltaire and Bourneville are examples of these villages. Saltaire was built by Titus Salt, owner of many wool mills to house his many workers. He built a new large mill just outside Bradford to begin his new business venture with Alpaca wool and the adjacent town was to home his workforce. It was bordered by the River Aire and by rail lines as well as the Leeds-Liverpool canal (useful for importing the Alpaca wool). The rest of the area was surrounded by "greenfield".

    • Word count: 915
  23. When Bargoed is mentioned in Penarth or anyway around Cardiff people mutter curses or giggle at it. But why?

    Bargoed is an ex mining town with the colliery at the bottom of the valley which is home to Bargoed and Aberbargoed. Bargoed was a rural town until the railway arrived and the colliery opened in 1903. Within seven years the mine employed two thousand workers. Today Bargoed has a well established shopping centre with a popular weekly market. A ten million pound reclamation scheme has removed many industrial scars from the town and created a country park. Bargoed has a population of around twenty five thousand.

    • Word count: 828
  24. Write a description of a town and its inhabitants.

    Little children run bare-footed in the road while cars honk their horns for them to move. The sun shines brightly and makes the roads and the town hot and irritable. On Bay Street, the sidewalks are crammed with tourists walking in and out of stores, while straw vendors try to grab the attention of potential customers. The bright colors of the straw market attract tourists and also the smell of different food attracts them. The stench of the salt water sea where the cruise ships arrive filled with stop over tourists tends to accumulate in the area and makes it an unpleasant place to dwell.

    • Word count: 703
  25. An assessment of the factors, which affect the catchment area and popularity of shopping centres.

    Building Use surveys, questionnaires, photos, sketches, pedestrian counts and audits will be used to collect the data in the two chosen sites. The first site chosen is Bracknell (field trip day) and the second site Woodley (independent research). I have chosen these two sites, as they are both very different, Bracknell being a large shopping area in the town centre and Woodley being a small towns shopping precinct. Both shopping centres show contrasts in different areas of the investigation e.g.

    • Word count: 636
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"Places draw us to them for reasons beyond the feelings derived from the five senses..."

-Alison and Peter Smithson

If you spend your free time comparing and contrasting the best parks, cathedrals, and train systems from around the world, then you might want to consider a university degree in architecture, building or planning. Students of these subjects study the built environment, and get the chance to leave their mark on the world in a very concrete fashion.

Although these subjects involve visual skills like drawing and model-building, they also require a fair ream of writing. So when you set down your pencil and ruler at the end of a day and find yourself faced with a blank text document, visit Marked by Teachers' collection of architecture, building and planning essays. Our teacher-marked essays will nurture your writing skills until you're able to write confidently on any topic that's called for.

Students of architecture, building and planning often go on to further training and careers within their fields of study; they can also switch to degreesand careers in related subjects, including engineering, art history or tourism, transport, and travel.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent does our understanding of space depend on the way we think of time?

    "`Conclusion The issues of time and space are, therefore, of great relevance, on a philosophical, as well as an mundane level. Fundamentally, time never stands still, and so our understanding of space will always be affected by the passage of time, to a certain extent. The degree to which the concept of space is dependent on time on a conscious level is, however, culturally-defined. An urban community, for instance, will probably have a far more commercial view of space than a Sioux Indian, whose appreciation of space is likely to be on a more aesthetic and philosophical level. `Overall, the changing values which we have assigned to time and space over the past century have led to destructionism. Instanteneity triumphs in the post-modern world, leaving people feeling detached from their sense of place. The future has become part of the present, as people attempt to guard against future shocks, via insurance. These combined problems have, in my opinion, led to the recent resurgence in the popularity of traditional values which has occurred in many industrialist countries, notably the USA and the UK. This represents an attempt to find stability once more in our ephemeral world. Nostalgia is effectively used to guard against time- space compression, which has already led to a reappraisal of our perceptions of time and space. `"

  • How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report.

    "So in conclusion the academic work that we have studied can help us understand the portrayal of the different aspects of urban life within cities. All aspects are can be tied together for instance crime and surveillance, work and family and so on. People tend to take films or any other sort of media interaction at face value and not truly understanding what the director wants to say within his film. Different people will view the same two films I watched differently and may disagree with what Soja may have said, but at least with the academic knowledge we posses now, we can take it all in and at least try to look at it from a different angle."

  • Discuss how the social geography of race and ethnicity is shaped by racism and exclusion.

    "In conclusion the different races and ethnicities of 'modern world' cities have been forced to clump together in groups of the same ethnicity/race. This has lead to a patterning urban environments and the 'Ghettoisation' of city suburbs. This is seen as a potential problem by governments, and the underlying problem of cultural sensitivity and equality, when planning socially to prevent social exclusion, has been attempted to be addressed by city planners. The planners however have come across a few barriers when trying to mix residential areas, such as communication with different ethnic minorities. Planners have in some cases found that people lack mutual communication and people tend to just talk past each other."

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