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Comparing the yields of fruit juice produced from different types of fruits using Pectinase.

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Introduction

Comparing the yields of fruit juice produced from different types of fruits using Pectinase. Background Knowledge: Fruits are made of a relatively simple plant cell, with thin walls made of two layers. The primary cell wall is made with cellulose fibres surrounded by a matrix of pectin, hemi cellulose and proteins. The second and inner wall is similar but contains less pectin. Between the two layers is a binding layer of pectin. The complete removal of this layer causes the tissues to fall apart. This is the reason for why fruits and vegetables become soft over a period of time. Long chains of pectin are broken down by digestive enzymes produced by bacterium such a "soft rot". Cellulose is also vulnerable to enzymatic attacks especially in the primary cell wall as its arranged at random compared to the stronger regular pattern form in the second cell wall. Breakdown of cellulose leads to the breakdown of cell walls and eventually their disintegration. As fruit ripens it becomes soft, there are two reasons for this softening firstly that the softening is caused by the cellulase acting on the cell walls, or pectin binding layer changing. ...read more.

Middle

However if a large quantity of pectin is present in a fruit then a larger yield will be produced by breaking down the pectin, therefore I think that the higher the pectin concentration of the fruit the more the effect there will be on the yield of fruit juice obtained using pectinase. Outline method: From previous experiments I know the importance of a control for each fruit sample i.e. replacing the 2cm3 of pectinase with 2cm3 of distilled water. This will enable the results to illustrate that the result was influenced solely by the presence of pectinase. Measure the volume of fruit juice produced by the presence of pectinase and the control. Calculate difference in volume produced, the difference should illustrate the effect of the pectinase if the difference is significant than pectinase does have an influence upon the volume of fruit juice from the same volume of fruit puree. Key variables: The temperature of the surrounding area in which the enzymes are working at have to be kept constant. The concentration of Pectinase has to be kept constant for all tests. The amount of fruit on which the Pectinase is working on has to be kept constant. ...read more.

Conclusion

Using 40g of fruit sample and 2cm3 pectinase and water bath temperature of 45oC. This would test if the method was effeicient in producing analysable results. Temperature (oC) Volume of Puree (g) Volume of distilled water (cm3) Volume of Pectinase (cm3) Time incubated in water bath (minutes) Time to filter produce (minutes) Volume of fruit juice produced (cm3) 45 40 40 2 30 15 55.9 In conclusion the method has to be altered so as to allow a constant value of distilled water of 1cm3 of distilled water for every 1g of fruit puree in the sample in total of 40cm3 of distilled water as the sample of puree to be used will be 40g and 2cm3 of pectinase will be efficient and 30 minutes incubation and 15 minutes filteration will also be efficient. The temperature will be kept constant at 45oC. Apparatus: * 1% Pectinase solution * Fruits used = apple, pear, orange, peach, pineapple * Test tubes * Filter paper * Measuring cylinder * Electronic scales * Water bath * Stop watches * Knife * Distilled water Add 2cm3 of distilled water to every 1g of fruit. Therefore for each sample this will total to 80cm3 of distilled water. ...read more.

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