Assess the effect of adjacent pH on the germination of a mustard seed.
Biology Coursework Plan In this project, I am trying to assess the effect of adjacent pH on the germination of a mustard seed. To do this, I am attempting to measure the growth of the germinating seed over a period of 4 days. In order to start the experiment, I will need the following apparatus: - * Petri Dishes * 5cc Syringe * Filter Paper * Mustard Seeds * pH buffers Here is a diagram of the proposed experiment: Method I am going to attempt to calculate the effects of adjacent pH on the germination of a mustard seed by first placing a piece of filter paper in a petri dish. I will then use a syringe to measure 8cc's of buffer solution to place into the petri dish, thereby saturating the filter paper. I will then place 20 seeds onto the paper at regular intervals, uniformly spaced. After replacing the lid of the petri dish, I will move it to a windowsill exposed to light. I will then leave the seeds to experience natural light patterns and temperature changes. I will repeat the experiment, increasing the pH of the buffer solution from 3 to 8 with intervals of for each new set of petri dishes. I will also use pH 9.2 buffer, as it is available and would allow more results to draw my conclusion from. As well as testing the effect of buffers, I am going to do an experiment using water as well. Seeds need water, correct illumination, suitable temperatures and the
Write an essay in up to 2000 words on the following topics, describing the procedures that can be used to isolate proteins from a cell and the methods involved in checking the purity. Using diagrams to help, you should explain fully the principles behind
Write an essay in up to 2000 words on the following topics, describing the procedures that can be used to isolate proteins from a cell and the methods involved in checking the purity. Using diagrams to help, you should explain fully the principles behind each technique. 'Healthcare Associated Infections ' The Procedures are rapidly increasing in today's world as technology enhances isolating protein from Cells is getting easier and much more precise. All cells have a structure and a function; all living organisms have cells with unique structures and functions. There are 2 types of cells, these are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, both of them are enveloped by a membrane which regulates entry and exit of substances through the cell as well as separating the interior to the external environment. Each cell is made up of different components such as organelles such as mitochondria, nucleus, golgi apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Cells also contain proteins. The behaviour of the cells is down to the information coded in genes. The complex structures of proteins allow them to have a variety of functions throughout the cell, they act as enzymes and use their binding ability to attach to specific substrates, proteins are important as they can oligmerise to form fibrils and some are integrated into the membrane which act as protein channels, receptors and cell
Nucleic acid hybridization
NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDISATION ANALYSIS Nucleic acid hybridisation is a process whereby a DNA or RNA strand forms an ordered series of hydrogen bonds with its complement, creating a duplex structure1. It is one of the backbones of biology2 and ever since it has became one of the important molecular techniques in molecular biology. According to the hybridisation theory, double-stranded DNA can be denatured into two single strands of complementary sequence by heating or treatment with alkali or other helix destabilising agents (e.g. formamide)3. The complementary strands will reassociate to reform a duplex structure3. Hybridisation of nucleic acid occurs not only between single-stranded DNA molecules but also between RNA molecules of complementary sequence and produce DNA-RNA hybrids3. Fig 1 below shows an example of hybridisation between nucleic acid. Fig 1: Filter hybridisation establishes whether a solution of denatured DNA (or RNA) contains sequences complementary to the strands immobilized on the filter4 DNA preparation is denatured and the single strands are adsorbed to a filter. A second denatured DNA (or RNA) preparation is added. The second preparation can adsorb to it only if it is able to base pair with the DNA that was originally adsorbed. Usually the second preparation is radioactively labelled, so that the reaction can be measured as the amount
The discovery of sulphonamides.
The discovery of sulphonamides In 1932, Gehard Domagk began a study of a bright red dye called Protosil, it was found that it caused a remarkable cure of streptococcal infections in mice (in vivo). However it was in active in on bacterial cultures (in vitro) (Fullerton, 1998). Domagk's studies continued on Protosil, and in 1933 the first of many human cures of severe staphylococcal septicaemias was reported. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology in 1939. Protosil's inactivity in vitro, but excellent activity in vivo attracted much attention. It was not until 1935 the activity of sulphonamides was discovered by Trefouel and co-workers, they reported their conclusions form a structure activity study of sulphonamide azo dyes, that the azo linkage was metabolically broken to release the active ingredient, sulphanilamide (Kucers et al, 1997). Their findings were confirmed by Fuller, in which sulphanilamide was isolated from the blood and urine of patients treated with Protosil (Fullerton, 1998). Following the dramatic success of Protosil, a cascade of sulphanilamide derivatives began to be synthesised and tested, by 1948 more than 4500 existed, but only about two dozen actually have been used in clinical practice. The sulpha drugs have proven to be ineffective against certain infections such as Salmonella
The aim of this experiment was to observe the movement of water molecules by the process of osmosis between living potato tissues and increasing amounts of glucose solution.
MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES IN A LIVING POTATO TISSUE The aim of this experiment was to observe the movement of water molecules by the process of osmosis between living potato tissues and increasing amounts of glucose solution. The purpose of the above was to see if increasing the glucose concentration in the solution made a different to the movement of water molecules and also to use this to see if a weight change occurred in the potato pieces. METHOD All the equipment that was required for the experiment was collected; a large sized potato, potato bore, tile, tweezers and the different concentrations of glucose solutions, H O, 0.1 mole, 0.2 mole, 0.3 mole, 0.4 mole, 0.5 mole, all of which were labelled with the specific glucose content. Throughout the whole experiment safety was paramount and this experiment was conducted in a safe manner. The tile was placed on the work surface and the potato placed on top. The potato bore was used to bore 6 individual rods of potato. Each potato rod was separately cut into 5 pieces of 1.5cm long length and then these were weighted in groups of 5, (The weights recorded). The groups of 5 rods were then placed into the 6 different glucose solutions with the tweezers; H 0, 0.1 mole glucose, 0.2 mole glucose, 0.3 mole glucose, 0.4 mole glucose, 0.5 mole glucose. Each individual group of 5 rods were left in the different glucose solutions
Bacterial Leaching in the mining industry
Bacterial Leaching in the mining industry Introduction What is bacterial leaching Bacterial leaching is the process by which micro-organisms are used to extract valuable elements from compounds. The bacteria achieve this extraction by oxidising the compounds; (this is how the bacteria obtain their energy to live) separating the compound into its separate elements. How is it applied to the mining industry In mining, bacteria such as the Thiobacillus thio-oxidans obtain the energy they need to live by oxidising S2- ions. The S2- ions are present in insoluble minerals of copper, zinc and lead. The oxidation of the S2- ions by bacteria releases these valuable metal ions into solution (from where the metallic elements can be extracted). An example of where widespread leaching can be found San Manuel in Arizona, a mine consisting of five holes drilled into an ore deposit, an acidic leaching solution containing bacteria is pumped down the central hole where the bacteria do their work. The resulting solution is pumped from the other holes and processed. The leaching solution is recycled. Leaching Gold Explanation Between 15% and 30% of the world's gold reserves occur as refractory minerals - microscopic particles of gold encapsulated in a mineral matrix. A traditional method of extracting this gold is to use froth flotation to separate the refractory minerals from any
The role of ATP and NAD / FAD in Respiration.
Tim Grayson The role of ATP and NAD / FAD in Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell. The process occurs in two phases: * Glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid * The complete oxidation of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water These processes take place inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles distributed through the cytosol of most eukaryotic cells. Their main function is the conversion of the potential energy of food molecules into ATP. Mitochondria have: * An outer membrane that encloses the entire structure * An inner membrane that encloses a fluid-filled matrix * Between the two is the intermembrane space * The inner membrane is elaborately folded with cristae projecting into the matrix. * A small number (some 5-10) circular molecules of DNA The glycolytic Pathway Glycolysis is the splitting, or lysis of glucose. It is a multi-step process in which a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is eventually split into two molecules of pyruvate, each with three carbon atoms. Energy from ATP is needed in the first steps, but energy is released in later steps, when it can be used to make ATP. There is a net gain of two ATP
Should we think of Fleming as a hero? IntroductionPenicillin has been such an important discovery because it has saved so many lives
Should we think of Fleming as a hero? Introduction Penicillin has been such an important discovery because it has saved so many lives from what we think as not really major injuries, i.e. an infected wound in the lower leg. It has led the way into discovering other penicillin moulds and curing people, when the effects of penicillin was first used doctors were amazed at its effect. Alexander Fleming has always taken the credit for the discovery of penicillin. In this essay I am going to examine the importance of Fleming's role in the discovery of penicillin, I will do this by looking at evidence proving that Alexander Fleming played an important role in the development of penicillin. The Discovery Chance played a very big role in Fleming's discovery of penicillin, because the mould that got onto the experiment dish flew in through the open window, when Fleming found the dish with the penicillin mould in it he was showing someone the work he had been doing recently and it was in the sink ready for him to wash it up. When Fleming found the dish he noticed that there was no germs growing around the structure of the mould, Fleming's individual skill was very important in the observation of the mould because he managed to notice that there were no germs when he was just skimming through his work showing it to one of his friends, when he managed to notice that there were no
Cardiac structure and Electrical activity of the Heart The adult cardiac is a hollow muscular organ which located in the thoracic cavity between the sternum and the spinal column. Heart Consists from four chambers (right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle and left atrium), ventricles are in the lower side and have thicker walls than atria from top side. The heart is also divided in to left and right part by muscular wall called septum. Tricuspid valve is between right atrium and right ventricle, Mitral valve is between the left atrium and left atrium, pulmonic valve is between right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and Aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. The contraction of the right ventricle will pump out the deoxygenated blood to the lungs which this occurring in a rhythmatic beats and the contraction of the left ventricle will pump out the oxygenated blood from the heart in to the rest part of the body. When cardiac cells in the resting state the concentration of the Na+ ions is higher from out side of the cells than inside the cells and the concentration of the negatively charged ions (organic phosphate, organic sulphate ions and protein ions) and small portion of positively charged potassium ions (K+) is higher inside the cells which makes the internal cellular negatively charged. The cell membrane is impermeable for free flow ions to cross
How does varying bacterial amylase effect inhibition by copper?
INVESTIGATION How does varying bacterial amylase effect inhibition by copper? Amylases are enzymes, which hydrolyse starch into maltose. There are two main types of amylase: - ) Alpha amylase, which degrade starch molecules into fragments 10 glucose residues long; 2) And there are Beta amylases, which break down into maltose made of two glucose molecules. Both are working by hydrolysis adding one molecule of water across the glycosidic link. Hypothesis I think that the higher the concentration of bacterial amylase, the faster the rate of reaction. This is because the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction. Increased concentration results in an increased possibility that collisions between molecules with the required activation energy will occur. Copper is non-competitive inhibitor. In non-competitive inhibition, the inhibitor may form a complex with the enzyme itself, with the enzyme/substrate complex or with the prosthetic group. The inhibitor is not competing for the active site but joins to the enzyme molecules elsewhere. Bacteria use amylase to feed and therefore provide energy to the cell. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are made up of prokaryote calls. They do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. The genetic material is in a single strand coiled in the centre to form a nucleiod. They are also single celled organisms. We cannot