• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The effect of serial position on memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The effect of serial position on memory Abstract Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) proposed that accurate recall ability is dependant upon the serial position. A sample of 20 subjects were asked to study a list of 20 words, and then write down as many as they could remember. The independent variable was the serial position of the words; the dependant variable was the amount of recall. The results showed that participants recalled more of the words at the beginning and the end of the list. These findings supported the hypothesis proposed by Glanzer & Cunitz (1966) Introduction Atkinson & Shiffren (1968) proposed a three-stage model of memory. They believed that a sensory register obtains information externally form each of the senses, then selects areas for further processing which is passed on to the short term memory store. They believed that the "short-term memory has a very has a very limited capacity on order of only a few items"(Searlman, Hermann 1994, p.50) they also stated that information only lasts up to 30 seconds. They also suggest that information in the short term memory can be retained if rehearsed by an individual, which increases the probability that it will enter the long term memory, where it has much less chance of being forgotten. ...read more.

Middle

A set of standardised instructions were compiled (appendix 2) to read to participants in order to maximise understanding and gain a high level of data, this was also used to stop each experimenter biasing their own results. A consent form was also produced to be signed by all participants (appendix 3), and ethical approval was gained prior to the investigation (appendix 4). Procedure Prior to any testing, participants were asked to read and sign a consent form. Participants were tested in groups of five, all groups were tested separately, but were all tested in the same location, and their data was viewed only by the experimenters. Once consent was obtained the standardised instructions were read to the participants who were then given the word list, to read for 60 seconds. A serial recall procedure was used in which participants were asked to recall the words as they appeared on the list, they were asked to begin this task immediately after they had finished reading the word list. There was no time limit enforced on the recall procedure, participants were instructed to inform experimenters when they had completed the task. ...read more.

Conclusion

The participants were split into three groups of five, and one group of four, the imbalance due to an illness on the day. However because they were not all tested at the same time and by the same experimenter this could have effected the concentration of participants therefore their amount of recall towards the end of list and explain why they showed low recency. A possible direction for future research would be to support the hypothesis of Glanzer & Cunitz (1968) that the recency effect could be eliminated by wiping out the last words from short-term memory, using a distraction technique delaying the test by 30 seconds. By using an independent measures design, a comparison could be made between one group completing a numeric task and the other group being tested immediately. This would provide the appropriate results to determine whether the recency effect could be eliminated. In conclusion, the findings supported Glanzers hypothesis and the hypothesis of the current experiment. The proportion of correct recall was higher for the first and last words of the list compared to the middle section, suggesting that accurate recall is created by the serial posistion in which a word occurs. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Psychometrics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Psychometrics essays

  1. Do leading questions have an effect on eye witness testimony?

    As the statistical conclusion proves, there was a greater standard deviation in Condition A "A" than the Condition B "the" group. There was a greater range of answers in Condition A, but a consistently higher instance of incorrect answers in Condition B.

  2. Halo-Devil effect

    This adds question to the Halo and Devil effects as it goes against the prediction of the theory. The female ratings show general support for the Halo and Devil effects, however, Figure four demonstrates that due to the 95% error bars overlapping significantly, the only rating that is significant for

  1. The Framing Effect

    Participants were given the following two choices and had to choose the choice they favoured: 1. Assume that you are richer by $300 than you are today. You now have to choose between: * A gain of $100 * 50% chance to lose nothing and 50% chance to lose $200 2.

  2. Psychology experiment I am investigating Chunking and the effect it has on the Short ...

    * After one minute the answer sheets were collected. * All the participants were then debriefed by me about the aim of my experiment and thanked for taking part. * The second group of participants (condition B) were then tested in exactly the same conditions except with a list of un-chunked letters.

  1. In an attempt to solve both these problems two experiments will be conducted, one ...

    This was because the aim was to compare different levels of ecological validity, which these two situations provided as one was highly artificial and one more realistic. To avoid participants becoming aware of the nature of the study, two independent groups were used.

  2. Ironic effects in memory: Does being told to ignore a list of words lead ...

    It was found that the rousing music, which Wegner equated with high mental load, only affected the sleep times of the people who were instructed to sleep as quickly as possible. Those participants who were instructed to go to sleep as quickly as possible and were given the rousing music took the longest to fall asleep.

  1. Highlight the effect of gender on the recency effect.

    Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968) explained the basic architecture of memory by proposing the multi-store model of memory. This investigation links to the model as it is the best type of memory model for explaining the recency effect. This suggests that memory is a two-process model, whereby information passes from short-term memory to long-term memory through attention and rehearsal.

  2. The aim of this investigation was to investigate if 'chunking' in STM will be ...

    This example and analysis used in this book once again supports the generally accepted rule by psychologists that STM has a limited capacity. However, there are some difficulties in measuring capacity in STM. As it is difficult to exclude the influence of long-term memory for tests.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work