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University Degree: Management Studies

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  1. Although Directors may consider the interests of a broad group of stakeholders, their primary legal accountability is to the companys shareholders. Discuss.

    The ethical issue here is, because generally there are people who are affected by an organisation's actions and pursuit to attain profitability, organisations must find who to cater to, and how much attention they should give them. This paper will explore different views on what the expectations and obligations of an organisation are, and how far they extend, subsequently I will put forward my view on the topic. There are many different perceptions of the term 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), but I will explore only three, a classical view that address mainly the fundamental and legal obligations organisations have, and

    • Word count: 1912
  2. How appropriate/useful do you think these analytical/modelling tools are for the strategic decision maker?

    Some of these tools were used for collecting primary and secondary data, technique to find the goals of the company by looking at its Mission Statement, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats) analysis, TOWS matrix, SPECCTRe (PEST, PESTLE, PESTEL, PESTLIED, STEEPLE, SLEPT analysis), Marketing mix- the 4P's, Porter's 5 forces, core competences analysis etc. These tools help us to solve an intricate business problem. Focussing on Customer segmentation- This helps to identify the key customers & their expectations. By doing this a company can reduce the gap between customers' expectations & perceptions and, improve its customer satisfaction rate.

    • Word count: 1969
  3. Free essay

    Discuss what organisations are and why do they exist. Explaining how they tend to change over time.

    Everybody should clearly know to whom he is accountable. Organisations exist in many different forms within the public, the private and the voluntary sector. The public sector is that part of the economy which is owned or controlled by the public, usually through government agencies. Public sector activities range from delivering social security, administering urban planning and organizing national defence. Fire services, Education and Healthcare are examples of public sector services. Public sector companies exist to supply a quality service to the society which ensures they live content and healthy lives.

    • Word count: 1234
  4. Theories on Power in Organisations. The primary goal of critical theory is to properly understand and assist in overcoming the social structures through which people are dominated within an organisation.

    In relation to an organisation, managers have power over their employees to do what they need to get done whether the employees want to perform the task or not. There are many different forms of power. Whether it be formal authority, personal characteristics, expertise, coercion, control of scarce and critical material resources or opportunity. Within and organisation power is for the most part directed downwards on the hierarchy ladder but sometimes power works in other directions such as upwards or laterally.

    • Word count: 1638
  5. Characteristics of good manager

    Further, managers must have a reciprocal recognition of the skills and responsibilities indispensable for other managers from identical and different functions and levels in an organization (Kraut et al., 1989). If these responsibilities and skills are not fully comprehended, managers will neither be able to communicate expectations, coordinate work effectively, give feedback, nor be prepared for job changes or any other career growth activities. Using an illustrative diary way to control managers at work, Mintzberg detect ten roles of management job, which were splitted into three main categories: informational, interpersonal and decisional roles.

    • Word count: 1723
  6. Johnson and Johnson Company Profile and Revenue.

    In 1919, James Johnson and Robert Johnson made their company go international and it expanded to Canada. In the 1920's Johnson & Johnson added consumer products to their business interest route. In the year of 1921, the Band-aid, Johnson's Baby Cream, and many other products such as the Johnson and Johnson's Baby Powder were created. They got their first European associate in 1924 to Great Britain. In 1931, they affiliated in Australia. To this day, they are affiliated with about 100 countries.

    • Word count: 1061
  7. Modernization of passenger reservation system: Indian Railways dilemma

    PRS has complex business logic. Complexity arises from the combination of handling types of trains 8, types of quotas 40, types of classes 9, types of concessions 199, and types of coaches (Railway Carriages) 123. 7. Indian railway handles around 16 million passengers per day in over 9500 passenger trains. Nearly 1 million passengers per day get their accommodation reserved through the PRS. 8. As of now only 15% of journeys are undertaken using reserved accommodation, it still adds up to over 1 million transactions per day on the PRS.

    • Word count: 1536
  8. Operations Management case study. Kool King. The main problem that the company faces is the fluctuation in demand over the course of an year which presents a problem during the planning of production. Due to which, the company has to now decide which str

    Due to which, the company has to now decide which strategy to follow, whether to lay-off workers and follow the demand chase strategy or to keep the workers and follow the level production strategy or go with a hybrid one. Numerical Analysis As there are 112 workers who are paid on an hourly basis, those are the workers which we can lay-off and rehire so those workers are a part of the analysis whereas the workers who have a fixed salary have no role to play during the production planning.

    • Word count: 1249
  9. AAPL Analysis - After gathering countless pages of SWOT analysis, sales data, financial data, stock projecting, and company background information, it is time to come to a conclusion about the health of AAPL and the prospect of investing in it.

    AAPL has adjusted well to this change in the economic landscape. Once AAPL only sold high priced computers; that was their market niche. They had plenty of customers who were addicted to AAPL's brand and hungered for the next high priced product which AAPL put out. Sure someone could buy a computer for less than $1000, but many had a thirst for the $2000 - $5000 computers that AAPL was producing. As the economic trend in the world changed and fewer people could afford these top end machines, AAPL had to change as well.

    • Word count: 1375
  10. Business analysis - For smart phone technology, AAPLs two closest competitors are Google (GOOG) with their Android phones, and Research In Motion Limited (RIMM) with their Blackberry phones.

    This slowdown in growth could be attributed to the world economic slowdown that was occurring around the same time. Looking into total revenue and gross profit for 2010, AAPL appears to have bounced back from the slowdown of 2009 to post a 52% increase in total revenue to $65.225 billion and a 49% increase in gross profit to $25.684 billion. For smart phone technology, AAPL's two closest competitors are Google (GOOG) with their Android phones, and Research In Motion Limited (RIMM) with their Blackberry phones. GOOG, in 2007, had a total revenue of $16.594 billion and a gross profit of $9.945 billion, while RIMM's total revenue and gross profit were $6 billion and $3.08 respectively.

    • Word count: 1813
  11. IT issues in a high street fashion retail company. This report will address the following issues of IT integration in the company and its affect of the way business is done

    Also to point out the possible drawbacks of using a database. In essence the report will be to make the company more updated to IT use in the business do that the business can be run with better technology to work efficiently. Procedure: The following methods have been used to suggest the most appropriate IT solution for the retail business: * Data Protection Act: The Office of Public Sector information was consulted to provide a copy of the Data Protection Act 1998, to find out what the rights of the customers were and what the retailer should do to be up-to-date with its responsibilities when collecting information from customers.

    • Word count: 1800
  12. This paper identifies General Motors organisational structure and design as well as explores the impacts of General Motors on the environment and vice-versa.

    In addition, throughout the course of everyday operations, factors of technical know-how, labour routine and regulations will be homogenised (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). GM operating in over 35 different countries around the world is thus regarded as a multinational organisation. It situates its headquarters in Detroit, USA whereby its organisational culture is moulded by its group of dedicated employees committed to pursuing goals GM set out to achieve (General Motors 2010). Multidivisional Multidivisional organisations generally arrange their employees into sets of functionally structured units that report to a centralised headquarter (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).

    • Word count: 1853
  13. Perspectives in Change Management. Why is it difficult to enact change in organizations?

    People are often more concerned with the implications of a change for themselves and their own interests, rather than taking the success of the business into consideration. Inadequate information or miscommunication can also affect a person's willingness to accept change easily. Their need for security and stability may override their willingness to accept change. There may also be disagreements between people as to the advantages and disadvantages of a proposed change process. Along with the variety of reasons people resist change, there are several reasons why change processes just don't succeed.

    • Word count: 1046
  14. Explain how you think the Asian goal of "harmony, but not uniformity" can help to achieve intercultural understanding in globalized business practices. Use clear examples to support the ideas in your essay.

    That means each state or nation should accommodate other civilizations while preserving its fine cultural traditions. With the globalization of economy, international business activities are increasing, which improves cultural integration and globalization, but the culture shock is inevitable. Even though the cultural contradictions are ubiquitous, we should take a correct attitude towards the cultural contradictions and respect human differences, cultural differences. Firstly, everyone should respect the difference between Eastern and Western cultures. It is well known that each state or nation has their own culture, education, work, and ways of thinking, as a result, the cultural differences are obvious.

    • Word count: 1144
  15. Data Mining Data mining is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. It is a powerful technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in their data warehouses.

    Existing data collected by a company can be used to implement data mining techniques to enhance the value of existing information resources. As the company grows with new products and systems, these new applications can be added on to the data mining platform. When implemented on high performance client/server or parallel processing computers, data mining tools can analyze massive databases to deliver answers to questions that they did not know the answer to before data mining was implemented. A typical example of a predictive problem where data mining can be used for is targeting customer segments for marketing.

    • Word count: 1600
  16. Value Chain Analysis. Within every organisation there are four types of strategies at work. In order for us to develop a competitive advantage from the use of information technology we need to understand the role that each strategy plays within the organ

    The essence of formulating competitive strategy is relating a company to its environment." [4] " Strategic decisions are concerned with: * The scope of an organisation's activities * The matching of an organisation's activities to its environment * The matching of an organisation's activities to its resource capability * The allocation and reallocation of major resources in an organisation * The values, expectations and goals of those influencing strategy * The direction in which the organisation will move in the long term." [5] Types of Strategy Within every organisation there are four types of strategies at work.

    • Word count: 1566
  17. In this assignment I will discuss whether profit can coexist with ethical responsibility. I will look into ethics in businesses and corporate social responsibility in regards to Milton Friedmans (1970) article in the New York Times Magazine.

    Friedman feels that because of "Free Enterprise" businesses are able to operate how they wish, with an agenda "to make as much money as possible". It is clear that Milton Friedman's view is in some way subjective. This is because many organisations do exist as profitable and in consideration of society. It is apparent that business attitudes have changed since 1970 and the awareness of ethics have become more significant. A recent article in the Guardian website suggests many large corporations have invested into acting on climate change as their role in being responsible. Press Association (2011) reports that "(68%)

    • Word count: 1140
  18. Global Forces and the European Brewing Industry

    Economical Whilst sales volume have fallen, sale value has increased. This is due to premium products such as fruit beers. Large supermarkets are offering cut price deals to entice customers into their shops. There has been a high rise in packaging costs. Social The first decade of the 21st century saw a fall in beer consumption in the UK and Germany. Wine was becoming more popular. Shift from 'on-trade' to 'off trade' due to more people drinking at home, possibly due to the 'No Smoking' law.

    • Word count: 1174
  19. Nike Analysis. Today, NIKE sustains a leading position through emphasising quality products, constant innovation and aggressive marketing. NIKE also has a mission statement which represents the company To bring inspiration and innovation to every

    NIKE recognises the need for a well-coordinated and efficient supply chain for its business industry. It spans multiple areas from raw materials to production to shipping to retail and ultimately to customers, a consistent and mature public policy position is needed. They support policies that deliver efficient, cost-effective delivery of Nike, Inc. products in a responsible manner. According to their financial data, throughout the fiscal years from 2007 - 2011, there has been an increase in revenues by 28%. NIKE divides its sales into three main distribution centres - NIKE Brand (U.S.), NIKE Brand (Non U.S.

    • Word count: 1416
  20. Organizational Development. To be effective in todays competitive environment the organization has to be restructured with the aim of creating and organization that is more efficient and responsive to changing market needs by encouraging open com

    The vision is to create a learning organization with the key focus being the customer. Teams would be created across functional boundaries to ensure participation from all areas of the organization. The chosen structure would be a mix of a learning and matrix organizations where employees would be grouped by product, service or focus area such as customer satisfaction. Departmentalization allows employees to carry out tasks more efficiently. The first steps towards this would be to assess the actual business and organization needs and then staff it with competent individuals. The assessment has to be both qualitative and quantitative.

    • Word count: 1030
  21. The Web development Project has a total budget of $20000. Project budget is allocated according to the table below.

    16 hrs $240.00 Direct Cost Define Technical requirements 120 hrs $1,800.00 Direct Cost Create Task List 8 hrs $120.00 Direct Cost Test Environment 8 hrs $120.00 Direct Cost Define test group 8 hrs $120.00 Direct Cost Define Test and Feedback procedures 24 hrs $360.00 Direct Cost Test group starts testing 40 hrs $600.00 Direct Cost Prepare test report and feedback 24 hrs $360.00 Direct Cost Communicate final design to Management 8 hrs $120.00 Direct Cost Final meeting and website Demo 8 hrs $120.00 Direct Cost 368 hrs $5,520.00 Consultant @ $10 /hr Concept Development 40 hrs $400.00 Direct Cost Customer

    • Word count: 1236
  22. Using appropriate theory, critically analyse the macro-environmental factors that have influenced the development of the global pharmaceutical industry.

    "A company can outperform rivals only if it can establish?a difference that it can preserve" (Porter 2006). The Pharmaceutical industry, specifically with large global firms has in the past based itself around what is referred to as a "Blockbuster business model" in which discovering genuine advances in healthcare created rapid growth and market penetration (Johnson et. al. 2010. p5467). This model is heavily reliant on high rates innovation, whilst a distinctive capability, managing it is costly and risky. (Kay 1995, p101-102). The rewards of creating a "Blockbuster" drug were immense, the initial risk involved places a huge burden on R&D departments within Pharmaceuticals perform.

    • Word count: 1121
  23. Dyson case study - Value chain, Resource Mapping and VRIO.

    The inbound logistics is where Dyson takes in the raw materials from his suppliers, so that they can rapidly meet their requirements where they are having problems to make the vacuum cleaner as Dyson wants. The outbound logistics which is the distribution of its products is outsourced. Dyson distributes his products for the vacuum channel which has got company-operated markets across the country. The marketing and sales was the one where Dyson`s own image and personal brand remained central to the firms promotion.

    • Word count: 1378
  24. E-Reading devices. The essay topic tells me that e-Reading devices, such as the Kindle and the iPad are the future of the leisure reading market. The first issue that comes to my mind is that is this true or false. What kind of impact would it have on Li

    The greatest advantage of these products is that it is a co-creation meaning it is a solution to eliminate vast amounts of paper from being used. This means that it can be environmentally friendly. In addition, It also contains metadata facilities as they are well organised and structured. Some e-books like the IPad have greater advantages as they can provide legacy metadata, meaning they allow you to find important information on websites for instance, catalogues, lists and databases about any relevant topic.

    • Word count: 1340
  25. Research Proposal - Research Problem: The problem is to analyze the corporate strategy of Tata communications ltd. Problem analysis: Tata Communications Ltd has changed its position from the year 2002 after acquiring the company from the Govt. of Indi

    Introduction: Tata Communications Ltd (formerly known as VSNL ltd), a part of $67.4 billion Tata companies, was formed in 1986 and is the chief global provider of networks with a preeminent leadership position in the emerging markets and with the market capitalization of $1.79 billion. After taking over Vsnl in 2002, the company is targeting to make global foot prints by takeovers, acquisition, strategic alliances etc along with the advancement of technology. Since 2002, TCL has acquired many companies such as Tyco global networks, Teleglobe International, Neotel, strategic alliance with BT, Transtel telecoms, Gemplex, Dishnet DSL's ISP division, etc (Source: 1: http://www.tatacommunications.com/about/overview.asp 2: http://www.tata.com/htm/Group_MnA_CompanyWise.htm)

    • Word count: 1857

"If you do things well, do them better. Be daring, be first, be different, be just."

-Anita Roddick

Business and administrative studies is an incredibly broad discipline; from management studies and HR to economics and finance, a great many careers will findthemselves beneath its generous umbrella. So if you're ambitious and career focused, one of the field's many specialties could be a good choice for your university degree.

Students of these subjects should be confident communicators, and persuasive writers. If your writing needs any help, don't hesitate to tap into the riches of Marked by Teachers' collection of business and administrative studies essays. These teacher-marked essays will lead by example, teaching you to whip your own essays into shape in no time.

Naturally, business and administrative studies students tend to pursue careers within the world of business, but some may opt for further study and careersin fields like politics, law and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Discuss what you consider to be the most important qualities of a modern organisational leader and to what extent you agree with the assertation that effective leadership is now critical to organisational success.

    "In conclusion there are certain qualities and skills both personal and non-personal which leaders must possess in order to be a leader.. They are usually learned and along with the knowledge of knowing when and where to use them. Different leaders will have different styles depending on the organisation they operate in, the task or company objective and types of followers they enlist. History has shown us undeniable proof of what can result from good and bad leadership. Keith Grint sums up a leader as someone who " causes others to act " . With regards to the positive effects of good leadership this is encapsulated in a statement from Daniel Dafoe when he says that " An army of lions led by a sheep is no match for an army of sheep led by a Lion ! " ( Grint, 1995 )"

  • "Information technology vitally assists in overcoming barriers to entry to competition in most industries." Critically discuss this statement stating whether you agree or disagree.

    "Conclusion Although a firm can enter in the market quickly with the help of IT, but it will not sustain in the market without 'right' model or competitive strategy. If a firm is not armed with right competitive strategy to counter the threats of five forces , then "IT doesn't matter" (Carr 2003)."

  • "The business of family business in Asia is the family." Discuss

    "In conclusion, this essay has examined the case that CFBs main concern is the family and not of business prosperity and profits. This was evident as CFBs have many structures and methods of doing business that did not lend itself to maximising the success of the business. However, CFBs dominate the corporate world of Asia and so a paradox was created in how a business model that did not place success or profits as its main concern or motive has managed to become so successful and dominate the Asian markets. This was examined and argued that focusing on the family and traditional Confucius values led to extremely successful businesses. The family was a tool for business success and therefore CFBs did not place family above profit but used it as a mechanism for profit gains and therefore they went hand-in-hand. However, the essay concludes that in today's modern, global market, CFBs that wish to stay competitive and enter the increasingly Westernised and standardised business practices must move away from the CFB model. This is apparent and so concluding that CFBs do not place family above profit as when it comes down to it, CFBs are gradually converging to western practices for the reason of business success and profits."

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