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University Degree: Philosophy and Theology

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  1. Provide a discussion on the problems associated with defining consciousness. Introduction Defining consciousness is important because it affects a wide range of subjects from ethics to quantum physics

    Also the context or person defining consciousness will determine the definition and how it is understood. It is interesting to consider why Descartes questioned his own senses and wondered whether the physical world is illusory, perhaps with regard to optical illusions. When we see a straight stick in a glass of water, it appears that the stick is bent. We can see a bent stick and, if we ask for our friends' opinions, they too will report seeing a bent stick.

    • Word count: 6336
  2. The 17th Century Rationalists and how their influence can be seen today This essay sets out to discuss a number of views of the relationship between mind and body

    What is the relationship between events in the brain and our private, inner, subjective experiences of our inner mental being? Not assuming that consciousness and mind are one and the same, consciousness could simply be a facet of the mind, but the issue here is whether consciousness exists. Before the 17th Century's Scientific Revolution, little was known about how our brains worked and the distinction between mental and physical phenomenon was vague, but it was understood that there was a difference between our private thoughts and experiences and the more public outside world in which we all live our day-to-day lives.

    • Word count: 5221
  3. Paul was born in Tarsus, c. 5 A.D., which, today, is in south-central Turkey, approximately 12 miles from the Mediterranean coast. Tarsus

    Additionally, as a Roman citizen, he was safe from the death penalty.3 "The Pharisees held a model of God formed totally by their interpretation of Scripture. Torah, the law, was the start and finish of the material they used in constructing the subjective model of the God they worshiped and tried to serve. In opposition to everyone in Israel who suggested there was another way to know God, they held to an unshakable view of the authority of Scripture as God's revelation of Himself to His chosen people.

    • Word count: 3735
  4. What is Freud's explanation for the existence of religion? To what extent does it provide a scientific explanation of religion?

    Freud took a psychological perspective of religion, looking at the emotional construction of religious beliefs (i.e., the underlying motivations for religious behaviour). He primarily focused upon the individual psyche, not on group phenomenon (i.e. sociology or anthropology) or on artifacts and/or religious writings (anthropology, theology, history). For his all-encompassing theory of the human psyche to be complete, Freud was compelled to give an explanation for the seeming irrationality of religious behaviour. As a typical product of European rationalism and science, Sigmund Freud personally rejected religious belief, but found in that rejection an apt object for study.

    • Word count: 3625
  5. Plato will be remembered as one of the great Western philosophers. The Republic, written between 374

    However, first of all we need to consider the background of Athens at this time. In the time of Plato, Athens was a democracy of direct and universal kind. In other words nobody was allowed to stand for election in the same way in which candidates are elected to represent people in local areas today. Instead all male citizens could directly play a part in decision making. The exceptions to this rule were women and slaves. Under no circumstances were theses sections of society permitted to play a part in the running of the state.

    • Word count: 3440
  6. B.R. Chopras interpretative rendition of Ludhianvis poem in the movie Sadhna, aims to symbolically capture this subtle irony. He uses light, mirrors, statues and choreography to capture both the essence of Ludhianvis poem and to subtly mock

    13 Mardon ke liye har zulam ravan 14 Aurat ke liye rona be khataa 15 Mardon ke liye lakhon sezein 16 Aurat ke liye bas eik chitah 17 Mardon ke liye har aish ka haq 18 Aurat ke liye jeena bhi sazah 19 Aurat ne janam diya mardon ko... 20 Jin hothon ne inko pyaar diya 21 Un hothon ka beopaar kiya 22 Jis kokh mein inka jism dhalaa 23 Us kokh ka karobaar kiya 24 Jis tan se ughe kopal banke 25 Us tan ko zaleelo khaar kiya 26 Aurat ne janam diya mardon ko...

    • Word count: 6750
  7. What does the Faerie Queene, Books 1 and 2 owe to the traditions of the classical epic and medieval romance? How does Spenser transform this inheritance?

    Each book concentrates on the 'quest' of a particular hero and involves the conventions of courtly love and the chivalric code, despite the higher moral theme of the fight between good and evil which is the link running between all six books. There are characters taken from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata - in particular the enchantresses Duessa and Acrasia. However, as Gransden notes, these take their sources from earlier works, and there are parallel characters to be found in classical literature.

    • Word count: 3972
  8. America's obsession with Therapy

    Math teacher evaluation: Difficulty understanding or naming mathematical terms, operations, or concepts, and decoding written problems into mathematical symbols.5 After reading this one would naturally think that this explanation is some sort of report about the progress, or lack of progress, of a student. This is not the case at all; the above description is a clinical diagnosis for two specific disorders; written expression disorder and mathematics disorder. The psychological obsession seems to be endless. It stretches from our everyday lives to our criminal justice system: America's answer is therapy.

    • Word count: 3784
  9. Describe and assess Locke, Berkeley and Hume's empiricist approach to knowledge and the conclusions they reach

    Sensation is how we perceive through the senses. And reflection comes after sensation; it's any mental activity such as wishing, thinking and so on. In order to justify his empirical claims, Locke patiently tied to show how all our information derives either from experiences of reflection, or of sensation. The most basic elements of our knowledge are what Locke called simple ideas. These are ideas that are not compounded of any other elements. As examples of such ideas, Locke offered the taste of sugar or the small of a rose.

    • Word count: 3992
  10. Francis Schaeffer and L'Abri:The Story of a Prophet and His Legacy to Evangelicals

    Was I ready to bow before Him as Lord and Savior?" Marte was, and did. After supper that evening the Schaeffers put on a record of Handel's "Hallelujah Chorus." As the joyful chorus of voices climbed into the night sky above quiet L'Abri, the Schaeffers told Marte the angels in heaven were also singing over a new child of God. What was this L'Abri, with branches in six countries? A Protestant monastery? A bed and breakfast establishment? And who was this strange small man with the goatee, this Dr. Schaeffer? Was he a prophet? A Luther?

    • Word count: 6279
  11. "A critical discussion on the ethics of abortion?"

    Therefore this is the beginning of life. The egg by itself is not alive and the sperm by itself is not alive. Life can only come into existence when the sperm meets the egg and develops. Therefore I say to Catholics, that using contraception in sex is no more killing a potential baby than a Catholic person masturbating. A potential life is ONLY formed when the egg meets the sperm and growth begins. A sperm or egg on it's own is not a potential life just the ingredients for life.

    • Word count: 3088
  12. So why History of Ideas?

    And so I attended the first two lectures of the class. Having hit my head (both embarrassingly and painfully) against the table after falling asleep in the second week's class, however, I thought maybe I should reconsider my choice. I mean no offence towards Martin Croghan, who is actually a very interesting man- it's just the subject that doesn't quite inspire me. After attending the second Ideas lecture and not having fallen asleep, the decision was made to hand in my little orange Change of Module form. And so ends the story of why it was that I chose the History of Ideas module.

    • Word count: 6596
  13. How does the view of modern media and literature vary to the biblical literature on the medical developments of Cloning?

    The embryo is split into two or more embryos when it is still in the early stage of development. The split embryo are nurtured into new embryos, all genetically identical, then implanted into the surrogate mother to grow. This is not the same as nuclear transfer as the born animal has biological parents and is a clone of its brothers and sisters. Cloning of mammals has proven to be difficult and has only developed in the past few years through a long line of research. 3In 1997 came the most famous sheep of all Dolly who was cloned using a cell from an adult sheep.

    • Word count: 3344
  14. Anselm of Canterbury, also known as Anselm of Aosta and Anselm of Bec or Saint Anselm, was first a student, then a monk, later prior and finally abbot of the monastery of Bec in Normandy, before being elected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093.

    and De concordia praescientiae et praedestinationis et gratiae dei cum libero arbitrio (The Harmony of the Foreknowledge, the Predestination and the Grace of God with Free Choice). Though his principal writings at Bec were more philosophical while his foremost writings as archbishop were more theological, still we must remember that Anselm himself made no express distinction between philosophy and theology, that at Bec he also wrote two meditations and sixteen prayers, and that his Cur deus homo and De concordia, in dealing with the weighty theological doctrines of atonement, predestination and grace, incorporate philosophical concepts such as necessitas praecedens (preceding necessity)

    • Word count: 10751
  15. In this essay, I will be focusing on why there is a trend of increasing number of people being converted to Christianity in Singapore society.

    Methods In order to make my findings less biased, I had interviewed two groups of people. They are my family members and also my neighbours next door who had been my family friends for several numbers of years. Since I have got a huge family with twenty over family members, so I only interviewed four of my family members and two members from my neighbour's family. Members of my family being interviewed are my father, my mother, my elder brother, Victor, and my elder sister, Jazmin. There are some difficulties, which I had encountered during the course of the interview. One of them is communication as my neighbour is of a different dialect group from me.

    • Word count: 3653
  16. The phenomenological foundations of Sartrean Existentialism.

    It's worse than the rest because I feel responsible and have complicity in it. For example this sort of painful rumination: I exist, I am the one who keeps it up. I... my thought is me: that's why I can't stop. I exist because I think ... and I can't stop myself from thinking." Sartre diverges from Descartes by not beginning his philosophy with a logical analysis of ideas but with a rude awakening to reality, minus a necessary reason for its existence and a stark depraved notion of absolute freedom. In agreement with Descartes, Edmund Husserl thought that true philosophical reasoning ought to be scientific, yet far more rigorous than the sciences.

    • Word count: 4339
  17. Discernment - How do we react, as Christians, when we encounter claims that a new movement of the Holy Spirit is taking place within the church, albeit involving elements that appear strange and bizarre?

    3. Church history shows that God has frequently in the past 'shown up' in revival power. Furthermore, such times have always involved extravagances, irregularities and errors which make it all too easy for the critic to say 'this can't be of God'. Edwards wrote 'There never yet was any great manifestation that God made of himself to the world, without many difficulties attending it.' (Distinguishing Marks, 273). We should not be too hasty to reject an alleged move of God because of error or excess. 4. Unlike the early church, we live in days of clearly defined denominations and groupings in which it is easy to assume that God will favour our particular grouping, and hard to believe that God would significant bless another section of his church.

    • Word count: 4436
  18. Throughout the course of time mankind has sought to understand the world around them. In ancient times, the resources used to gain knowledge would have included myths, religions, natural sciences, or perhaps even using philosophical techniques.

    The approach of rationalism, however, was formed around the time of the renaissance. Epistemological renaissance rationalists' considered Sensory input and perception as imprecise and misleading. In order to obtain an alternative reliable method that was not deceptive they considered deductive proofs as the predominant technique. Essentially this was because of their support for deductive attestation. This, of course, relied on the principle that a valid argument guarantees its conclusion is true if its premises are. Specifically, they considered nothing as certain except through the use of deductive logic and mathematical processes. The influential figures behind the foundation of the approach are most conspicuously Ren´┐Ż Descartes (1596-1650).

    • Word count: 3522
  19. In Paradiso, Dante comes to the end of his spiritual journey.

    In Paradiso, these same qualities, turned to good purposes, have made various people into Saints. Dante highlights the unspiritual, misguided nature of the inhabitants and the place by starving it of light. Inferno is where sinners are sent to act out their punishments for all eternity, without any hope of God's light shining upon them. In Canto 1 of Inferno, Dante finds himself 'per una selva oscura' (Inf.1, 2). Having realised that he has strayed from the right path, he experiences feelings of desperation and hopelessness and it is only when he looks upward and sees, 'raggi del pianeta che mena dritto altrui per ogni calle' (Inf.

    • Word count: 3370
  20. Religion & the 2000 Election

    "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."[2] This clause of the constitution of the United States of America has lead to the belief of many that there should be a direct separation of church and state in American politics, requiring a "wall of separation" to use the phrase of Thomas Jefferson.[3] This has lead to the popular belief that ideally matters of religion and religious belief should never enter the sphere of government, or government legislation.

    • Word count: 3243
  21. The theories of Marc Bloc and historical writing

    This is not to say that this historical judgement necessarily differs widely from historian to historian, but there is nothing more than convention preventing somebody from making use of an entirely new division of evidence to throw light on the past. Furthermore, as Georg Iggers has pointed out (though defending abstractions), criteria of selection necessarily presuppose certain regularities within history which allow generalisations to be made. If the past is, in fact, chaotic, any attempt at organisation would distort history, imposing a false regularity simply to appease the need for order in the mind of the historian.

    • Word count: 3199
  22. Discuss the need for sound exegesis.

    a genuine attempt is made to discover and interpret what it really means, as against our antecedent expectation of what it ought to mean...first place should be given to the search for the meaning of scripture itself; this is what the community needs, and wants, to hear.' (p. 123) The key phrases here are 'genuine attempt' and 'what it really means.' This requires a mindset where the conveying of Biblical truth is the ultimate goal, regardless of whether, in the process, sacred cows are slaughtered and former beliefs challenged.

    • Word count: 3532
  23. Looking at the Babylon's Society during Hummurabi's regime by analyzing the Code of Hammurabi.

    To understand the society of Ancient Babylon by studying the code of Hammurabi. Areas of focus are: a. Political Aspect b. Economical Aspect c. Sociological Aspect 2. To find out how the code of Hammurabi provides a foundation for the society to grow? Methodology: Given the limited resources both in terms of manpower and time, decided to focus on analyzing contents of the Code of Hammurabi and from the Code to develop profiles of the Ancient Babylon Society. Approach: The Code of Hammurabi was downloaded from the web site of The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Extensive search were conducted over the web to trace similar research papers about the Anicent Babylon.

    • Word count: 13800
  24. A Real Ideal Sense of Mind, Matter, and Self.

    Hylas: "Without doubt it cannot." (Berkeley, 14) This will serve as the lodestar for what lies ahead; Ayer's strong Positivist background will valuably help us parse through many propositions. The desired goal is remembered, though; the aforementioned dichotomy shall be described, and Ayer will reconcile the 'existence' of the issue and lead us away from doubt, helping us logically construct an integrated universe with which we participate from the question, "What are we?" Berkeley's Idealism and Russell's Realism The Arithmetical Paradox defines the Realist/Idealist issue well, and relates to the 'problem of perception'.

    • Word count: 4092
  25. '(If I) Say stealing money is wrong' I produce a statement which has no factual meaning - that is, expresses no proposition which can be either true or false' - Explain and discuss the reasons Ayer puts forward for this view of ethical judgements.

    The tone, or the exclamation marks, adds nothing to the literal meaning of the sentence. It merely serves to show that the expression of it is attended by certain feelings in the speaker. If I now generalise my previous statement and say 'Stealing money is wrong', I produce a sentence which has no factual meaning - that is, expresses no proposition that can be either true or false."1 Thus when someone makes a moral judgement they are merely stating one's opinion of moral feelings which have no factual basis since it is purely an emotion.

    • Word count: 3074

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