"In relation to other factors, how far was Henry's desire for divorce the main cause of the Reformation in England in the 1530's?"
"In relation to other factors, how far was Henry's desire for divorce the main cause of the Reformation in England in the 1530's?" During the 16th Century, we see the beginnings of what turned out to be perhaps the greatest shift in religious doctrine from Catholicism to Protestantism England has ever experienced; The Reformation. Henry VIII's break from Rome in the 1530's certainly helped cause this. Nevertheless great historical debate has raged for many years over the reasoning behind severing the link with the Papacy. The most popular argument is that it was Henry's strong desire for divorce from Catherine of Aragon -- in an attempt to re-marry to ensure the succession with a male heir -- that bought about the break, where as others dispute this, campaigning for the case that it was mass social discontent with the existing church that was the cause. Some have even taken the stance that the exclusive reason for the break was based on Henry VIII's greed; his further want for greater power, control and wealth, while others suggesting that he was taken advantage of by ambitious members of the Church and the Inner Circle. Soon after his accession in 1509 Henry married Catherine of Aragon, nevertheless this was not a straightforward marriage, it required Papal dispensation based on the fact that Catherine had previously been married to Henry's brother Arthur, who had died
Henry V - History of a Hero? In act one, scene one of Henry VI Part 1 some of the remaining characters from Henry V stand, following the death of King Henry V, and discuss the nature of their former monarch. King Henry the Fifth, too famous to live long! England ne'er lost a king of so much worth. England ne'er had a king until his time. Virtue he had, deserving to command.1 Their memories of the young king seem to sit well with some of the opinions of characters in Henry V, "I love the lovely bully", and indeed with history itself, "a military leader with a clear idea of virtue and leadership"2. However other characters in Henry V offer us less favourable opinions, "I'll never trust his word after", "Aye he said so, to make us fight more cheerfully. But when our throats are cut he may be ransomed, and we ne'er the wiser." Audience members are showing executions, foul language and scant regard for human life, promting Gerald Gould to ask Is it seriously maintained that Shakespeare means us to admire Henry here?3 So what is it about both the play and the character which makes him so open to debate? Why can some people see him as "the mirror of all Christian kings", whilst others accuse him of being a "brutal opportunist", and "subtle protagonist"? Henry has himself always occupied a special place in the annals of English history. Literature, including, though not
The English Reformation that grew out of the 16th century was undoubtedly a turning point in British history. The effect it would have on English society was paramount. Centuries of religious tradition and habit were being broken with in light of new radical ideas and thoughts. Many factors contributed to the rise of Protestantism in England and one notable example stands out. Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry the VIII, was a staunch supporter of Protestant beliefs and ideals. The following paper examines the role Anne Boleyn played in advancing the Reformation's cause inside her country. Upon examination, it becomes clear that Anne Boleyn used her position of power to promote the Reformation's development within England. Before addressing the actions taken by Anne Boleyn, it is necessary to address a few of the key ideas linked with the Reformation. First, the Church of England was to operate independently of Rome. The English monarch was to replace the Pope as the head of the Church.1 Second, the concept of 'Justification by Faith Alone' was largely promoted, in place of the belief that good works would secure an individuals path to heaven. Finally, it was believed that biblical scriptures ought to be read in the vernacular.2 Anne Boleyn possessed a large degree of power in her latter years; first, as the King's preferred mistress, and then as Queen of England. It is
Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV began the rivalry and conflict of personalities in 1075.
Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV began the rivalry and conflict of personalities in 1075. Pope Gregory VII forbade lay investiture; the term used for investiture of clerics by the king or emperor, a layman. The clerical reform movement generated the crisis; it was essential that the church had the power of selecting bishops if church reforms-abolition of simony and clerical marriage-were to be carried out. The famous decree against lay investiture come from Pope Gregory VII; 'If anyone in the future receives a bishopric or abbey from the hands of any laymen, he is under no circumstances to be ranked among the bishops, & we exclude him from the grace of St Peter.. and if anyone with a bishopric or any ecclesiastical offices let him know that he will there with incur the sentence of excommunication'. As the feud concerning investiture broke out, there was no official agreement as to the powers of the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor in installing bishops; it was thought by each they both had overall power in this matter. Although investiture meant the ecclesiastical ceremony itself, the duties also included with the election and installation process. The dispute over investiture was one of the greatest struggles between Church and state in the Middle Ages. The problem rose from the dual
With close reference to Henry V, Act 1, scene ii, ll.260-298, in an essay of approximately 1500 words, discuss - Henry's use of rhetorical devices- The way themes important to the play as a whole are present in this scene.
With close reference to Henry V, Act 1, scene ii, ll.260-298, in an essay of approximately 1500 words, discuss - Henry's use of rhetorical devices - The way themes important to the play as a whole are present in this scene The historic play Henry V was written in the Fifteenth century by William Shakespeare and is said to be "the most active dramatic experience Shakespeare ever offered his audience." By Joel Altman. (1) Imagination played a big part in Elizabethan plays because of the lack of visual effects and props etc, therefore language and 'over - dramatic' action was required to provide epic illusion. The need to exercise the imagination is emphasised in Henry V by the chorus who serves to introduce and sum up the five acts. "Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts:" (Prologue New Penguin Edition 4) The play works on many levels and explores six themes; the king's search for justification; modesty and pride; money and the making of deals; the omnipresence of death; the rhetoric of politics; the king as an actor. It was necessary that these themes were emphasized at every stage of the performance thus ensuring that the audience were swept up in the story and the characters reached out to the audience, in fact Paul Garnult, director of the Wales Actor's Company said "It is about the communication of emotional expression, the transference of resonant images from
The decision to use the atomic bomb is a debate that will question and antagonize American foreign policy analysts and decision makers for as long as moral and ethical elements accompany empirical realities. However this debate was most intense and important while the shockwaves of the first use of atomic power were still encircling the world. At this time those that had to carry the responsibility of such a decision had the responsibility to defend it. This responsibility fell primarily to Henry L. Stimson, American Secretary of War and main adviser to the President Harry S. Truman. In 1947, two years after the first use of the atomic bomb Henry L. Stimson produced "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb" outlining his reasons, and the suggestions made by the Interim Committee; the committee formulated to advise the president of his decision, headed by Henry L. Stimson. The period after the introduction to the world of atomic energy had been filled with bomb testing in February of 1946, surveys of the effects on humanity, objection to this kind of force, and a critical claim that the American government had created a 'myth' to justify the use of atomic warfare1. Many people started to question; was the bomb really necessary during World War Two? What really motivated the decision makers in determining what plan of action to take, and what were the alternatives? This new
Henry E. Howell, was born on September 5, 1920 in Norfolk, Virginia. He was marred to Elizabeth McCarthy of Portsmouth, Virginia and they had three children- Mary, Susan, and Hank.
Henry E. Howell, was born on September 5, 1920 in Norfolk, Virginia. He was marred to Elizabeth McCarthy of Portsmouth, Virginia and they had three children- Mary, Susan, and Hank. While growing up in Norfolk, Howell attended Maury High School and graduated in 1938. After high school Henry went on to attend the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary, now named Old Dominion University. Following his graduation from there he continued his education at the University of Virginia and obtained his law degree in 1943. 1 After receiving his law degree Howell moved to West Palm Beach, Florida to practice. He later returned to Virginia and eventually formed his own law firm called Howell, Anninos, and Daugherty. He specialized in admiralty and tort law. Henry Howell first ran for office in 1953. He ran in the Democratic primary for a seat in the House of Delegates, and he was defeated. In 1953 and in 1965 Howell was elected as a Democrat to Virginia's House of Delegates. Howell was then elected to the state Senate in 1967. In 1969 Henry made his first of three attempts at being elected as the Governor of Virginia. The first time he ran as a Democrat, but in his later attempts, in 1973 and also in 1977, he ran as an Independent. According to Hank Howell, Henry's son, he was defeated due to racial issues, mainly bussing. 2 He lost that election by only fifteen
Natalie Baynham Did Henry marry Katherine out of duty or love? Explore the events and language of the play and Shakespeare's portrayal of Henry's character to form your own interpretation of how the ending should be performed Henry V is a play of many themes and emotions, such as patriotism, bravery and desire. It takes a young, naïve man through a journey that moulds him into a brave and noble King, after his father's death. This young man is Henry V who struggles to prove himself as a worthy King and discovers that there are some who will simply betray him. Many battles are portrayed in the play, such as the Battle of Agincourt and the battle at Harfleur, in which the English are victorious. Henry processes are vast passion and desire to conquer France as he lays claims to certain parts of France, based on his distant roots in the French royal family and on a very technical interpretation of ancient land laws. With the support of the English noblemen and clergy the English set off to conquer France much to the disgust of the French, especially the Dauphin. However, despite the out-numbering of English soldiers at Agincourt the French surrendered and the English were triumphant. Following, peace negotiations between France and England are met involving Henry marrying the King of France's daughter Katherine, which will unite the two Kingdoms and Henrys son, shall become
Jaclyn M. Matzen Paper 5 Pasts & Presences 9 November 2001 Politics in the Personal Lives of David and Hal In the play Henry, IV part 1 and the book The David Story there are many incidents in which politics interfere with the personal affairs of Hal and David. King David is constantly being looked upon by the public, which makes his personal affairs judged politically as he is a leader and role model for the public. Prince Hal's political stance has not yet been realized, however, scrutiny of his personal relationships and interactions are already being examined as he makes his journey from prince to king. Looking at the personal lives of the political leaders, David and Hal, we find out how their personal and political lives interact. Hal is to be made king and he realizes the character and personal lives of kings are not private. Furthermore, it is openly debated what personal traits constitute a good ruler. Hal understands this yet, he is known as a degenerate friend of Falstaff and he appears more at home in the tavern than at court. Hal only has to answer to his father at this time, not the public. David, on the other hand, is concerned with the effect Amnon's actions will have upon the public if he proclaims them. David must face the results of his son's deeds publicly as he is king and will be judged politically in the public arena. Hal is described
Henry V is primarily concerned with war and the glory of war, we can learn little else from the study of this play. 'Discuss'.
Henry V is primarily concerned with war and the glory of war, we can learn little else from the study of this play. 'Discuss' I neither agree nor disagree with the statement 'Henry V is primarily concerned with war and the glory of war, we can learn a little else from the study of this play'. The play is set in and around warm so obviously war features heavily in it, however there are other topics included in this play for instance; religion, history, law, relationships, kingship and leadership and through analysing the play we can learn about these. 'Henry V' is a play about war. In it we see the two aspects of war. Henry sees war as a way of gaining glory and honor however if he is not completely oblivious to the reality of war, he acknowledges openly and honestly that people will die in Act 1 Scene 2 when he says that, "many now in health shall drop their blood in approbation." He also, in Act 3, Scene 4 reveals the true horrors of war when describing to the governor of Harfluer what will happen to the people if they do not surrender. He speaks of burning the town down and how his soldiers, out of control, will rape their daughters, kill their fathers and put their "naked infants spitted upon pikes". Here Henry uses graphic detail, stromg language, visual imargry and alliteration to depict the grotesque nature of war. He may be exaggerating so as to frighten the governor