"Gothic...reflects humanity's quest to aspire to great things, but also to hide in shadowy spaces. It represents perpetual human ambition, and the constant threat of human failure"
"Gothic...reflects humanity's quest to aspire to great things, but also to hide in shadowy spaces. It represents perpetual human ambition, and the constant threat of human failure" The Gothic novel is characterised by horror, transgressive violence, supernatural effects and a taste for the mediaeval. Horace Walpole heralded the arrival of the gothic genre in 1764 with his archetypal novel: The Castle Of Otranto. The success of this catastrophic story led the way for an analogous torrent of gothic releases such as William Beckford's Vathek (1786) and Mathew Lewis' The Monk (1796). By 1818, Mary Shelley's perennial masterpiece; Frankenstein had been released, its arrival marked a new chapter in the gothic genre; by combining her knowledge of feminist authors such as Radcliffe and her reading of patriarchal tales such as those listed above, Shelly was able to actively critique previous gothic traditions while still managing to create a great myth. Like many of the stories before, Frankenstein reflects humanity's quest to aspire to great things. Shelley subtitled her novel; The Modern Prometheus, by doing this she is reinforcing her protagonist's great endeavours while infusing inevitable failure. The subtitle refers to the figure in Greek mythology who was responsible for a conflict between mankind and the gods. Prometheus stole fire from Zeus in order to help people
"Literature is not innocent. It is guilty and should admit itself so." What does Bataille mean by this, and is he justified?
"Literature is not innocent. It is guilty and should admit itself so." What does Bataille mean by this, and is he justified? When Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights1 was published, it was deemed by many to be a story of sinister and evil content, and this view was especially centred on the character Heathcliff. Many readers, in general terms, would see the novel as guilty as opposed to innocent (it must be remembered here that Bataille uses the words guilty and innocent not with their everyday meanings, but with meanings that he constructs for the purpose of his argument), and this is perhaps why Georges Bataille chose to include it in his study, Literature and Evil2, and also why the title quote is so relevant to the book. But what does Bataille actually mean in this quote? What is his definition of innocent and guilty? Also, how does this relate to Wuthering Heights (the text we shall concentrate on here) and is Bataille justified in the conclusions he makes? It is important then to firstly attain a good idea of the meaning of Bataille's terms, as a starting point for this essay. When we think of the word innocent, the word good also comes to mind. Innocence is the state of having done nothing wrong, and so something that commits no wrongs must then be good, and therefore free from guilt. Bataille gives this utilitarian based view of Good; it is "based on a common
"The Cask of Amontillado": Analyzed
Kimberly Gonzalez February 27, 2006 English 102 10 Short Story Essay "The Cask of Amontillado": Analyzed "The Cask of Amontillado," written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1846, is about a man named Montresor. Montresor seeks revenge on Fortunato by taking him on a journey and walling him up alive. Fortunato plays an ironic role throughout the entire story. This story is also told by the main character, which makes this story untrustworthy. In "The Cask of Amontillado," Poe emphasizes a revenge theme through his representation of journey, irony, and narrative point of view. Montresor's vengeance on Fortunato is the outcome of an insult. "The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge" (Poe 136). In Montresor's attempt to seek revenge, he uses Fortunato's love for wine to lure him into the catacombs, where Montresor's dead family members remain. Once in the catacombs, their journey begins. Fortunato begins to cough and Montresor uses Fortunato's pride to keep him going. Montresor tells Fortunato that he will find someone else to taste the wine. Of course, since Fortunato thinks he is the best person to taste the wine and determine whether or not it is Amontillado, he agrees to continue on the journey. At the end of the dark and undesirable tunnel, which also represents hell, Fortunato is walled up and left to die.
"Dracula"- sexual women
"Dracula"-sexual women Phyllis Roth believs dracular has remained so popular throughout the years as it involves a fantasy that is shared and understood by many, and this fantasy is strongly linked to the Oedipus complex. The fantasies of this novel change horror into pleasure. Dracula's hostility to female sexuality would have been appealing to both the victorians and 20th century reader and Carrol Fry compares the vimpiressess to the fallen women of 18th and 19th century novels. The division between the dark and the fair women and the fallen and idealised is clear. Roth states ; quote "Perhaps nowhere is the dichotomy of sensual and sexless women more dramatic than it is in Dracula and nowhere is the suddenly sexual woman more violently and self-righeously persecuted than in stoker's thriller". Vampirism and sexuality are closely related, and Freud observes "morbid dread always signifies repressed sexual wishes". Although the tone of morbid dread is evident throughout the novel, also is that of lustful anticipation; anticipation of killing dracular himself and anticipation of a sexual consummation. One instance of morbid dread mixed with sexual desire is when Harker meets Dracula's 3 vamire women; "All three had brilliant white teeth that shone like pearls against the ruby of their voluptuous lips. There was something about them that made me uneasy, some longing and at
How do Ivan Turgenev and Jane Austen use narrative techniques to 'show' and 'tell'.
Compare Elizabeth Bennett in 'Pride and Prejudice' in their judgments upon their parents. How do Ivan Turgenev and Jane Austen use narrative techniques to 'show' and 'tell'. In this essay, I attempt to show that both Elizabeth and Arkady exist in different eras of the century, however, they are not totally affected by the predominant social perceptions widely adopted by the society, namely, values pertaining to marriage, love, beauty of art and nature. Nonetheless, their social and personal beliefs have affected their judgments upon their parents. Both Turgenev and Austen have used various techniques in 'showing' and 'telling' to capture the reader's interest as well as enable the reader to understand the viewpoints of each character in the respective passages. In the first passage, Arkady shows no intention of pretence by replying very promptly yet cheerfully: "Fenechka?" (Turgenev,12). However, this may have appeared too embarrassing to Nikolai who blushes at the loud announcement of the name. In fact, Nikolai's stuttered reply displays that he is indeed self-conscious that probably a man of his age should be dating a young peasant girl of a different social class. Arkady expresses surprise with a hint of reproach - "You ought to be ashamed" - that Nikolai should apologise for the inconvenience of appropriate accommodation. He is actually telling his father that
How is Justine Presented in this Chapter? How Does Shelley Use Language to Create Effect in this Chapter? How Does Shelley Present Women as a Whole in the Novel?
Gabriela Belmar-Valencia 12CA 7th March 2003 a) How is Justine Presented in this Chapter? b) How Does Shelley Use Language to Create Effect in this Chapter? c) How Does Shelley Present Women as a Whole in the Novel? a) At the opening of Chapter Eight, the character of Justine is presented as dignified and composed, not, as might be expected, ridden with hysterical terror; "The appearance of Justine was calm", "she appeared confident in her innocence and did not tremble". At this point Justine appears to be resilient and strong as she had "collected her powers" and is described as speaking "in an audible although variable voice". However it is implied that this is simply a façade "as her confusion had before been adduced as proof of her guilt, she worked up her mind to an appearance of courage". The fact that courage does not come naturally implies that she is far from brave, as initially described. This is later confirmed as it is clear that she is unable to keep up the appearance of composure "She was tranquil, yet her tranquillity was evidently constrained", "A tear seemed to dim her eye when she saw us; but she quickly recovered herself". As the trial progresses, she quickly loses control; "her countenance altered. Surprise, horror and misery were strongly expressed. Sometimes she struggled with tears". Justine is presented
The Tell Tale Heart
The Tell Tale Heart This story was written during the Victorian time, in early 1800 by Edgar Allan Poe, who was born in 1809 and died in 1849. Although he was American, he spent his school years in Stoke Newington University, in England. In his early age Poe tried many different jobs, like a soldier, journalist, and a kitchen porter. Then later, he became very successful at writing horror stories (Gothic). The Tell Tale Heart is one of them. The story is told by the narrator who murdered the old man he lived with. He says he used to love the old man. However, the old man had an awful eye and the main character could not stand it, so he decided to kill the old man. Eventually, he took the life of the old man. Then, the police were called by a neighbour, and told of a shriek heard the night before. The police went to find out what happened. The main character successfully presented himself as innocent, but in the end he gave himself up. He admitted committing the crime. In the first paragraph the writer is diving us an introduction to the story. Tension is suggested straight away in the narrator's opening sentence, in which he says "True! Nervous- very, dreadfully nervous. I have been and I am". Suspense keeps building up as the writer tells the story by talking to the reader directly. "But why will you say that I am mad?" suspense in this story plays a very
'Two basic kinds of narration exist - the omniscient and the limited' Tomashevsky)
'Two basic kinds of narration exist - the omniscient and the limited' Tomashevsky). Consider the implications of this distinction in your chosen texts. It has been said that 'two basic kinds of narration exist - the omniscient and the limited' (Tomashevsky). In this essay I shall consider the implications of this distinction in Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen and Equiano's Travels. Where Omniscient narration is used, the narrator has a 'godlike' perspective giving the reader an insight into the thoughts and feelings of the characters and can describe to the reader events taking place in multiple locations at the same time offering a variety of point of views simultaneously. Limited narration offers only the viewpoint of a single character, from whose perspective the story will be told. However, the reader may be able to deduce further information about events from what is shown, although this may be the reader's interpretation rather than what the author intended. It is worth remembering however, that Tomashevsky s statement reduces a much broader of possible narrative forms to the two basic types. Omniscient powers may be focused upon one character, as is seen in limited omniscience, and dialogue can be used in limited narration to show the views of a range of characters, depending on whether it is written in the first person - 'I', 'me', 'us' or the third person - 'he',
Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child?: Representations of Mothers in Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility
Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child?: Representations of Mothers in Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility "I can no more forget it, than a mother can forget her suckling child". Jane Austen wrote these words about her novel, Sense and Sensibility, in a letter to her sister Cassandra in 1811. Such a maternal feeling in Austen is interesting to note, particularly because any reader of hers is well aware of a lack of mothers in her novels. Frequently we encounter heroines and other major characters whom, if not motherless, have mothers who are deficient in maturity, showing affection, and/or common sense. Specifically, I would like to look at Sense and Sensibility, which, according to Ros Ballaster's introduction to the novel, "is full of, indeed over-crowded with, mothers" (vii). By discussing the maternal figures in this work, I hope to illustrate the varying possibilities of what mothering and motherhood can entail in Austen, and what this curious spectrum of strengths and weaknesses means for the heroine involved. When discussing the mothers in Sense and Sensibility, it is only logical to begin with Mrs. Dashwood, Elinor and Marianne's mother. We meet her just a few pages into the novel, and are immediately told of her genuine and unassuming interest in Elinor's relationship with Edward Ferrars. Unlike most of Austen's mothers, Mrs. Dashwood is neither calculating nor
Commentaryon the passage from Wilkie Collins' The Moonstone is taken from chapter four of the narrative.
English Kate Etienne Commentary The passage from Wilkie Collins' The Moonstone is taken from chapter four of the narrative. The passage suggests that this work is a fictitious novel due to the form of prose as well as its lack of factual reference. This section of prose is one which contains great amounts of description and is effective in pulling the reader into the narrative in a short period of time. The reader is introduced to two characters in this section and is allowed to learn much about both in a short period mostly through description and not through delving into inner thought. Much of this is achieved through the use of narrative voice. The narrative voice used by the author of this passage is that of first person narrator. The narrator of this passage is Mr. Betteredge. Mr. Betteredge is speaking to us, the reader, which is an affective way of drawing the reader further into the narrative. He is an elderly gentleman; we know this by the reference he gives to the difficulty he has sitting down on the beach, "When you come to my age, you will find sitting on the slope of a beach a much longer job then you think it now." Through the language used by the narrator, it can be seen that he is a well spoken man, educated, and by the reference to "the plantation" as well as his "bandanna handkerchief - one of six beauties given to [him] by [his] lady" and his job as