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University Degree: Criminology
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There is no requirement for the lay magistrates to have any qualification or a background that includes law. A crown court consists of various people, these are the judge, the jury who consists of 12 members of the general public, the defendant who might be escorted by the police in case they have been sentenced already or a custody officer if the defendant is on bail, and the defendants lawyer, also the prosecutor and their lawyer is present as well.
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Yet others believe that the unborn child is a victim to this 'victimless' crime and therefore it can be argued that there can be no such thing as a victimless crime as all illegal acts can indirectly harm someone or something. In criminology 'public order crime' is defined by Siegel (2004) as "...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently"3. This could be the act of prostitution or any other behaviour that strikes against public norms and social values.
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Police officers must be trained and encouraged to consult the public, educate the public and coordinate with community associations. This is a transformation which positions the police service at polar opposites with its traditional, paramilitary roots. Anderson writes that, "[...] police forces should be willing to undergo change, especially deep, organizational shifts from the rigid paramilitary structure, to one where accountability and public consultation are the operative philosophies." (Anderson, 1995). This metamorphosis is a restructuring from a vertical, command and control mode of operation, to a horizontal participatory system.
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This behaviour is normalised by identifying the deviant act separate to the individual. E.g. A man is seen as aggressive because he is 'under stress' at work, a woman behaves oddly because it is 'that time of the month'; an elderly woman steals from a supermarket because she is 'confused', a young man runs outside naked because he is not 'aware' of his actions. But what happens if other people begin to take notice of the individual's deviance and make something of it?
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The main purpose of this essay is to look at the limitations of the common sense understanding and how statistical and theoretical information enhances our understanding of crime.
News stories concentrate overwhelmingly on serious violent crimes against the person and less on petty crimes. The media also usually focuses on ethnic minority males as the offenders. This can create a stereotypical offender, which the public recognise. Furthermore there is great emphasis upon violent crime portrayed in the media, such as rape and murder, compared to less violent crimes such as vandalism or burglary. Some statistics oppose this view as looking at crimes overall there are considerably less violent crimes than non violent crimes, 21% of crimes recorded are violent crimes compared to just 15% of crimes recorded being vehicle related theft (Home office 2008).
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There is no doubt that crime is a very big problem, and that we do need to be alerted to examples of the crimes that are being committed in and around the areas in which we live, not only to alert us to the dangers we could be facing but also to help us prepare for such events. However are the crimes that are being reported day after day, actually that likely to affect us? Or are the cases being reported purposely made to sound more gruesome and likely to affect us, in an attempt to increase viewer ratings for television news programmes and increase profits of the daily newspapers?
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Summary of zero tolerance policing. ZTP acts to neutralise crime (Wilson and Boland, 1978) by targeting anti-social behaviour. Both America and England provide evidence of its success as it results in complete changes in lifestyles in populations
ideas that zero tolerance is merely a short term fix resulting in future tensions between the police and communities. I will then go on to show that the legal application of zero tolerance policing actually serves to increase public perception of officials. The 'New York Miracle' saw a 75% reduction in 7 major crimes (Henry, 2002)since the application of ZTP, which can be attributed to the introduction of 7000 new men, Compstaat (computer system that calculates high crime areas) (Pollard, 1999), and the decline in crack cocaine use.
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Three levels of law. There are three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions that exist in the United States. The three major law agencies are Federal, State, and Local. Each of these has created a variety of police agencies to enforce laws.
One of the most well known agencies was the Texas Rangers, who were created in 1835. Before Texas attained statehood and functioned as a military organization that was responsible for patrolling the Republics borders. The apprehension of Mexican cattle rustlers was one of the main concerns at that time. Massachusetts was the second state to create a law enforcement agency. Usually state law enforcement agencies are organized after one of two models. The first of which is a centralized model, where the tasks of major criminal investigations are combined with the patrol of state highways.
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Criminal theories. Many theories and categories exist about why crimes are caused. Some of those theories include; Biological Theories, Conflict Theories, Sociological Theories, and Psychological Theories.
Later, in the mid 1900s William Sheldon developed the method for classifying people based on their body type, otherwise known as somatotyping. After studying two-hundred juvenile delinquents between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one he decided the young men possessed one of three somatypes (body types). The three body types are Mesomorphs, which is someone with relatively more muscle, bone, and connective tissue, Endomorphs, or someone who is more round and soft throughout various regions of their body, short tapering and small limbs; small bones; and soft smooth velvety skin, and Ectomorphs which is someone that is thin, fragile, and delicate.
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The Growing Realisation of the Importance of Placing Victims at the Heart of the Criminal Justice System is Long Overdue. Discuss.
For the argument of this essay a victim can be defined as "a person who suffers physical, emotional, and financial harm because of a illegal activity" (Karman, 2007, p383), therefore being a victim includes more than just the person who was targeted by an offender, it also can include their family, their friends, and any witnesses. There can also be those victims that have not physical suffered from a criminal act but have been socialised into fearing crime to such an extent that they have victimized themselves.
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to communication and help with managing the common impacts of sexual assault including fear, disbelief, shame, guilt, nightmares, depression, anxiety and self harming (Maguire, 1982 as cited by Spalek, 2006, p.73). The RCC is continually seeking to improve pathways to service provision through publication and promotion of the service. They state on their website that they seek to distribute at least 2000 pamphlets, 1000 stickers and 200 promotional kits annually; they also seek to provide information and comment to ten media outlets annually in the aim of enhancing access and service delivery to clients.
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WITH REFERENCE TO ONE PARTICULAR SURVEILANCE TECHNIQUE OF YOUR CHOICE, ASSESS THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REASONS DRIVING ITS GROWTH
CCTV is a telling example of the assemblage qualities of surveillance. While CCTV is often referred to as a single entity, it is actually comprised of multiple agendas and artefacts. Surveillance is recognised as an elementary building block for all societies, since the act of socialism would be unthinkable without the surveillance of adults, how else would children be fabricated into actual competent members of society. At a more complex level surveillance is also recognised as one of the central mechanisms through which the modern state achieves the routine administrative functions of providing welfare, health, education and security for its population.
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The opening on the skull is called trephine, which allowed the evil spirit to escape the head. Another type of treatment for a person affected by bad spirit was exorcism. According to Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, (2007), exorcism techniques varied but typically included magic and prayer. According to Butcher, Mineka and Hooley (2007), "references to abnormal behavior in early writings show that the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks often attributed such behavior to a demon or god who had taken possession of a person" (p. 28). It is important to mention that Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) recognized the importance of environment.
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It is through these changes in law that crime changes and thus could be argued to be socially constructed. Commack and Brickey (1991, p.15) argue that 'law can be said to have a distinctly social basis; it both shapes - and is shaped by - the society in which it operates". Societies perceptions and values are ever changing and with them so is the law and thus the crime rate. This is clearly evident through the differences between countries. What is illegal in certain societies is legal in others; take the above example the chewing gum ban in Singapore.
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With the use of at least five examples from the media, discuss the extent to which the criminal justice system is underpinned by prevention and retribution.
However prevention and retribution were brought back to be the main approach of the criminal justice system in the 1980's in answer to the failings of the reform theory in the decades before. In the 18th century the classical school of criminology developed by Beccaria purposed the reform of the penal system. It suggested that crime be defined by the legal code and that crimes were committed out of free-will and rational choice. The classical theory then decided that the way to change this behaviour was to introduce a fear of punishment as a deterrent and that the punishment fits the crime.
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Critically analyse the Media(TM)s role in shaping public perceptions of crime(TM) Use press cuttings and media reports (local or national) from any dates between September-November 2007 to support your answer.
It then goes on to write four short paragraphs about the incident but uses only select details for maximum effect. The Daily Mirror newspaper covered the same story using effectively the same format as the Daily Star but with the headline 'Yacht 3 died after ferry officer failed to raise alarm, Jury hear.' Comparing the same story in broadsheet newspapers, there are many differences to the tabloid newspapers. Though the headlines are still used as a shock tactic, for example, The Times used the title 'Ferry officer 'left sailors to drown.'
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To what extent are social divisions in a society avoidable? In your answer, draw on two social divisions explored directly on the module teaching programme.
Class is still used in society to represent the hierarchical status of groups and individuals within the society. Classes give details of different layers of issue inequality and identify actual or even the potential social forces, which increase the capacity to alter the society. Marx, expresses class struggle as a great motive force within human history. There have been some disadvantages among Karl Marx and Max Weber about class exploitation. Marx understands this situation is "ambiguous" (lecture notes) and viewed as a class conflict as the main start of social change, but Weber's idea was that the class conflict be "contingent" (lecture notes), which obtains a high potential to take place, but by no means is it unavoidable.
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Some argue that criminal behaviour is due to environment, others believe that it is biological, and yet many would say it is a mix of both and that it has to do more with personality. If there were certain personality traits that could be identified with potential criminal behaviour, steps could be taken to reduce or diminish the criminal persona. Although personality is not the only factor in criminal behaviour, there does seem to be a strong association between the two.
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What do media representations of crime and crime statistics tell us about the way that the problem of crime is constructed?
In order to fully expand on the assignment title, I will explain the definitions of crime, how statistics are created, how the statistics are interpreted by the media, and how this effects society's perception of crime, criminals and crime control. The Oxford English dictionary's definition of crime is: "An act punishable by law, as being forbidden by statute or injurious to the public welfare... An evil or injurious act; an offence, a sin; esp. of a grave character." (cited in Muncie 2001 Pg.
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The 1980's also produced the concept of realist criminology. The Conservative government was taking a tough stance in the fight against crime, founding measures that would tackle the growing problems, thus inspiring right realism. In order to remain in the political arena, left wing criminologists developed left realism whilst loosening ties with radical criminologies. (Muncie & McLaughlin, 2004, p49) The contribution realist theorists make to crime is very complex. Both left and right realists emphasise that the reasoning behind committing crime and the practicalities involved in solving crime is of paramount importance, however they have polarised concepts.
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The rate of imprisonment in England and Wales is one of the highest in Europe. Discuss this statement with reference to sentencing in England and Wales
(Newburn 2007) 'One of government's responses to the growing problem of prison overcrowding in recent years has been the development of administrative mechanisms for securing the early release of prisoners' (Cavadino 1992:142) Due to being operated dependently of courts sentencing procedures such as parole could act as a safety valve if prison population threatened to overwhelm the prison system (Cavadino1992) Disadvantage of the release key is that procedures have to be constantly adjusted. (Cavadino 1992) Until recently consequentialist approaches to sentencing which allowed for aims such as rehabilitation and reform have been favoured over retributive.
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Discuss the proposition that official statistics which purport to measure levels of crime bear no resemblance to reality.
however the statistics collected by the three although having the same topic at mind, 'crime' they produce different statistics. "Police statistics provide a good measure of trends in well-reported crimes, are an important indicator of police workload, and can be used for local crime pattern analysis." (a. Home office. 2007) Many people prefer to look at these statistics as an indication of crime levels because they are from the police and government and therefore feel they are reliable however unreported crimes are not recorded and some victims may be advised to drop their case if police feel that the offender is unlikely to be caught through lack of evidence, description of offender etc.
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